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简单评论几句孟晚舟案件 2018-12-09 19:20:06

据网上的消息,加方公布了一份美要求逮捕孟晚舟的申请。过目后觉得有些话需要和网友交流一下。

从目前公开的资料看,美方可能证据不是很足,我个人认为对孟晚舟有些怀疑,但是证据可能不足,是否要逮捕看美加的具体法律规定了。第二个问题是Skycom是否违法?如果Skycom没有违法,其它一切都只是工作错误或误解。至于华为的人在Skycom里面工作,这并不违法,也不能说明华为和Skycom间的法律关系。美方的资料猜测的因素多了一些。

下面是公开的资料,请网友自己阅读并做判断:

Summary of Facts

事实摘要

Wanzhou Meng(“Meng”), also known as“Cathy Meng” and“Sabrina Meng,” is the Chief Financial Officer(“CFO”) of Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd.(Huawei”), a corporation organized under the laws of the People’s Republic of China(“PRC”) and the world’s largest telecommunications equipment company. Meng is a citizen of the PRC and a daughter of Huawei’s founder, Ren Zhengfei. In addition to her role as CFO, Meng currently serves as Huawei’s Deputy Chairwoman of the Board, and serves or has served in various roles at other Huawei subsidiaries and affiliates. Meng also served on the board of Hong Kong-based Skycom Tech Co. Ltd.(“Skycom”) in or about and between February2008 and April2009. According to financial statements for Skycom for the years2009 and2010, the“principal activities of Skycom were engaged in[sic] investment holding and acting as a contractor for contracts undertaking[sic] in Iran.”

孟晚舟,英文名Cathy Meng或Sabrina Meng,是华为技术有限公司(以下简称“华为”)的首席财务官。华为依据中国的法律运营,是全球最大的电信设备提供商。孟晚舟是中国公民,其为华为创始人任正非的女儿。除了是CFO,她也是华为的副董事长。她还在多家华为子公司中担任过或正在担任职务。孟晚舟也曾于2008年2月至2009年4月前后,在总部位于香港的Skycom科技有限公司(以下简称“Skycom”)担任过董事。Skycom2009和2010年的财报显示:Skycom的主要业务是投资控股并担任与伊朗(签订)的合同的承包商。

According to information obtained through an investigation by U.S. authorities, including the following, Huawei operated Skycom as an unofficial subsidiary to conduct business in Iran while concealing Skycom’s link to Huawei. In this manner and as explained in further detail below, Huawei could conceal the nature of certain business it was conducting in and related to Iran, which is generally considered a high-risk jurisdiction.

根据美国当局调查所获得的信息(以下有述):华为将Skycom作为非官方的子公司运营,以此开展在伊朗的业务,同时隐瞒了两家公司间的联系。华为用这种方式隐瞒了它在伊朗境内开展的以及与伊朗有关的业务信息,而这一块通常被认为是一个高风险管辖区。具体细节如下》

Former employees of Skycom have stated, in sum and substance, that Skycom was not distinct from Huawei. For example, Skycom employees had Huawei email addresses and badges, individuals working in Iran used different sets of stationery(“Huawei” and“Skycom”) for different business purposes, and the leadership of Skycom in Iran were Huawei employees;

根据Skycom前雇员的陈述,无论是整体还是细节,Skycom都和华为关系密切。例如,Skycom的雇员用华为的电邮地址,有华为的徽章。在伊朗工作的人员根据不同的业务需要使用不同的文具(华为和Skycom都有)。Skycom在伊朗的领导层是华为的雇员;

Documents show that multiple Skycom bank accounts were controlled by Huawei employees, and Huawei employees were signatories on these accounts between2007 and2013;

文件显示,多个Skycom的银行账号是由华为雇员控制的,这些雇员2007-2013年间是账户的签字人;

Documents and email records show that persons listed as“Managing Directors” for Skycom were Huawei employees;

文档和电子邮件的记录显示:被列为“Skycom经理”的人员是华为的雇员;

Skycom official documents, including several Memoranda of Understanding, bore the Huawei logo;

Skycom的官方文件,包括几份备忘录,上面有Huawei的商标;

Email correspondence and other records show that all identified Skycom business was conducted using“@huawei.com” email addresses; and

电邮通信和其它记录显示:所有被确认的Skycom的业务使用的都是包含“@huawei.com”的电邮地址;

Documents show that a purportedly unrelated entity to which Skycom was supposedly“sold” in2009 was actually also controlled by Huawei until at least in or about2014.

文件显示:据传2009年收购了Skycom的一家先前被认为并不相关的实体事实上也是由华为控制的,直到2014年前后。

Transactional records and other documents obtained by U.S. authorities further demonstrate that Huawei operated Skycom as an unofficial subsidiary to conduct business in Iran while concealing Skycom’s link to Huawei. Among other things, records obtained through the investigation show that Skycom was used to transact telecommunications business in Iran for major Iranian-based telecommunications companies.

美国当局获取的交易记录和其他文件进一步显示:华为把Skycom作为非官方的子公司来运营,目的是为了在伊朗开展业务,同时隐瞒起了Skycom与华为的关系。此外,调查的记录显示,Skycom被用来为伊朗主要的电信公司经营电信业务。

PROVISIONAL ARREST REQUEST FOR WANZHOU MENG

孟晚舟临时逮捕请求书

The investigation by U.S. authorities has revealed a conspiracy between and among Meng and other Huawei representatives to misrepresent to numerous multinational financial institutions, including a global financial institution which conducts business in the United States(“Financial Institution1”), Huawei’s business practices, particularly Huawei’s control of Skycom in or about and between2009 and2014. Specifically, Meng and other Huawei representatives repeatedly lied about the nature of the relationship between Huawei and Skycom and the fact that Skycom operated as Huawei’s Iran-based affiliate in order to continue to obtain banking services from multinational financial institutions.

美国当局的调查显示:孟晚舟和其他华为代表共谋向众多跨国金融机构做了虚假陈述,包括一家在美国开展业务的全球性金融机构(以下简称为:金融机构1)。虚假陈述的内容涉及华为的业务,重点是华为在2009-2014年间对Skycom的控制权。具体而言,孟晚舟和其他华为代表在华为和Skycom关系的实质上反复撒谎,隐瞒了Skycom作为华为在伊朗的附属公司运营的事实,这些行为的目的是为了从跨国金融机构处继续获得银行服务。

The motivation for these misrepresentations stemmed from Huawei’s need to move money out of countries that are subject to U.S. or E.U. sanctions– such as Iran, Syria, or Sudan– through the international banking system. At various times, both the U.S. and E.U. legal regimes have imposed sanctions that prohibit the provision of U.S. or E.U. services to Iran, such as banking services. Of particular relevance, companies such as Huawei operating in sanctioned countries often need to repatriate income out of those countries by relying on U.S.-dollar clearing transactions, which typically pass through the United States, or Euro-clearing transactions, which typically pass through E.U. countries. Huawei was a customer of Financial Institution1 and the other victim institutions, and conducted a significant amount of its international banking activity, including U.S.-dollar-clearing transactions, with Financial Institution1. The financial institutions at issue, including Financial Institution1, maintained policies by which they would not onboard Iran-based clients or process Iran-related transactions through the United States, so as to avoid exposure to U.S. civil and criminal liability. In response to due diligence inquiries by the banks regarding these internal policies, Meng and other Huawei representatives repeated stated that Huawei did not operate Skycom and that, with respect to Financial Institution1, Huawei would not use Financial Institution1 to process any Iran-related transactions.

这些虚假陈诉的动机源于华为需要通过国际银行系统将资金从受美国或欧盟制裁的国家(如伊朗、叙利亚或苏丹)转移出去。美国和欧盟的法律体系多次实施制裁,禁止向伊朗提供美欧的服务(如银行服务)。尤其需要注意的是,华为这样在受制裁国家开展业务的公司经常需要依靠美元结算交易(通常通过美国)或欧元结算交易(通常通过欧盟国家),从受制裁国家转回收入。华为曾是金融机构1和其他受害机构的客户。华为与金融机构1进行了大量的国际银行业务,包括美元结算交易。涉及的包括金融机构1在内的金融机构都有相关政策,不与总部在伊朗的客户进行交易,也不通过美国处理与伊朗相关的交易,以免承担美国的民事或刑事责任。针对银行就这些内部政策进行的尽职调查,孟晚舟和其他华为代表反复表示:华为不控股Skycom,也不会利用金融机构1来处理任何与伊朗相关的交易。

Because Meng and other Huawei representatives misrepresented to Financial Institution1 and the other financial institutions about Huawei’s relationship with Skycom, these victim banking institutions were induced into carrying out transactions that they otherwise would not have completed. As a result, they violated the banks’ internal policies, potentially violated U.S. sanctions laws, and exposed the banks to the risk of fines and forfeiture. In particular, these relationships included the clearing of hundreds of millions of U.S.-dollar transactions through correspondent accounts at financial institutions in Eurozone countries. In essence, these misrepresentations exposed the financial institutions to serious harm and denied the institutions the opportunity to make decisions based on the true risk of processing certain transaction and the reputations risk associated with banking high-risk clients such as Huawei.

因为孟晚舟和其他华为代表向金融机构1和其他金融机构虚假陈述了华为与Skycom的关系,这些受害的银行机构被诱使进行了原本不会发生的交易。结果,它们违反了银行的内部政策,并有可能因此违反了美国的制裁法案,面临着罚款和被吊销资格的风险。注意,华为与Skycom的关系包括通过欧元区国家金融机构的往来账户结算了数亿美元的交易。实质上,这些虚假陈述使金融机构面临着巨大的危险,使它们无法判断出进行某些交易的真实风险,并根据这些真实风险做出判断,也使他们无法判断与华为这样的银行高风险客户进行交易所冒的声誉风险。

For example, during the relevant timeframe, Financial Institution1 was under investigation for U.S. sanctions violations involving Iran and later entered into a deferred prosecution agreement pertaining to U.S. sanctions violations involving Iran, and could therefore have suffered criminal consequences for processing Huawei’s Iran-based transactions.

例如,在相关时限内,金融机构1正因为违反了美国对伊朗的制裁(法案)而接受调查,之后达成了延迟起诉协议,并可能因为违反了上述法案(处理了华为在伊


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市场是科技的原动力 2018-11-04 20:22:56

今天很高兴听到习近平主席在进博会讲话中宣布将在上海股市交易所设立科创板块,并试行注册制。很兴奋,尽管出台有些晚了,但是终于跨出了这一步,对中国的科技事业和从业者而言,这是历史性的一步。科技的本质是人的创新思想和活动,有两种主要的驱动方式,1)好奇心驱动;2)市场驱动。这两种驱动相辅相成,缺一不可,这已经被发达国家的实践所证实。相反的证据来自中国的股市,遵循极其简单的思维方式,即有限的上市公司,严格的财务指标,本来以为股民无选择的股市,一定是高价股市。可是由于尽是一些没有活力,不懂科技的低端企业,或是垄断的巨头,结果股市只能在狂炒和僵尸之间转换,没生气,没激情,没梦想,没成就,最终人们躲得远远的,价格奇低,仍然没人要。


中华民族是个智慧的民族,有巨大的科技研发潜力,新的市场经济概念已经将商品的概念大大扩展,不再仅仅是有形的产品,可以是无形的,专利的,思想的,概念的,等等。这部分商品所占比例随着社会的进步而飞速上升,将来只会越来越大。吃穿用住的比例越来越小,人们都要成为也必然成为精神贵族。让拥有无形资产和科技商品的企业获得平等的市场交易资格和权益将会对科技的进步发生深刻而根本的影响,会推动科技工作者专注于市场的需求,而需求则是经济的唯一动力。


市场经济的原则和精髓就是自由,对于科技企业入市也自然要遵循这个原则,是真是假,是好是坏,是潜力股还是僵尸股的判断由市场来决定,不需要权贵们插一脚来寻租。人们愿意买和卖就是法律和天条,入市退市的原则就是由买卖的成交价格来决定,有人要,价格高就可以入市,没人要,价格低必须退市,空壳没有价值。


当人们对前段时间的政府经济政策有疑虑时,我们也同时看到,习近平还有时间。如果能在市场化方向上深化改革,并启动农村改革和城镇化,经济仍有希望。如果政治也能积极努力进步,那么中国的国际环境也会随之改善,民族复兴还是很期待的。








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胡锦涛-造就中国十年腾飞的伟人 2018-10-02 05:59:07

前总书记胡锦涛是较有争议的政治人物,他执政期的某些政策被一些人批判,其中最为敏感且争议大的是他的经济政策,尤其是货币政策,被认为他人为发行了过多的货币,并造成了严重经济问题,尤其是资产价格暴涨。

尽管有些学者从不认可对胡锦涛的批判,但是社会上一些对经济似懂非懂的学者和官员形成了舆论和影响,并左右了新一届的政府,不断折腾货币供应,终于陷中国经济于低迷。在今天人们倾向于反省之时,从新审视胡锦涛的经济和货币政策有特别的意义,有助于纠正当今人为干涉并严重偏离市场经济规律的政策,有利于中国经济回到市场的轨道上来。

打开百科全书,经济是满足人类需求的活动,人类的需求也随社会进步而变化,因此经济就是在这个轨道上发展。然而在市场经济的客观现实中,孤立的人的需求是无法被体察的,仅仅只有人握有货币时,这种需求才能在社会经济层面体现。而且人的需求分多个层面:生命必需,生活必需,小康宽裕,精神需求,奢侈豪华,等等。当人仅握有少量货币时先要满足的无疑是生命必需,如基本的食物,货币稍多时会考虑正常的生活需要,营养,住房,通讯,出行等,依次类推,在社会发展的进程中人类高层次的需求不断获得了满足。当然人的需求不单纯表现为个体的需求,也表现为群体的需求,社会的需求,比如高铁就并非是简单个体诉求的集合,而是由社会组织(政府)代表了集体的需要。总之经济是人类个体和社会需求推动的,需求是通过货币体现的。

当我们用上述最基本的经济观点来审视胡锦涛的经济政策时,我们发现他做得完全正确,所谓的胡温新政,不仅不过度人为控制货币发行,而且鼓励货币的有效发行,即货币被送到急需展现需求的个体和群体身上。比如为推动城市改造和现代化,中国城市拆迁户获得了适当超过市场价值的补偿,据此市民们不仅获得了新的住房,而且具备经济能力完成了房屋装修,电器和家具配备等等,另一方面,政府代表了中国人的集体需求,大力投资基础设施,高速公路和铁路应运而生,总体汇成的巨大需求导致了中国经济的飞速发展,而且同时中国经济的飞速发展形成了极高的国际竞争能力,进出口贸易和外资投资都高速发展,成就了中国世界最强的工业体系,非常了不起。作为一个温和守规矩的人,胡温可能在反腐,污染治理等方面不够强硬,但是在缩小贫富差距方面,胡锦涛不仅有行动,有成果,而且还提出了中国继城市和工业现代化之后的农业现代化和城镇化,要彻底解决农业落后和农村贫困的问题。他确实是一个伟人,带给了中国十年腾飞,奠定了中国现代化的基础,绝大多数中国人在他执政的年代,生活质量都获得了显著的改善。他指出的中国未来的方向就是中国成为发达的社会主义国家的道路,是人人安居乐业的道路,是激发中国人民万众创业和创新的道路。

伟人的根本是对事物的科学认识和实践,而不是性格,也不是人为造就,在中国这块热土上,在共产党奇特而又多有诟病的执政体系里,中华民族的优秀个体仍然不断涌现,除了那些如雷贯耳的响亮名字,胡锦涛,一个温和的人,在民族进步和复兴的道路上留下了一个深深的脚印。



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