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网络日志正文
江峰:石正丽插入艾滋毒株合成病毒毒死人 2020-02-22 22:21:26

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       始自 22:32


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https://www.nature.com/ar

ticles/s41586-018-0010-9


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https://link.springer.com/ar

ticle/10.1007%2Fs00705-0

10-0729-6


Image result for 中华人民共和国国家知识产权局

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https://patentimages.storag

e.googleapis.com/6d/52/89/

cdfed23ddbb51c/CN102690

336A.pdf


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https://www.nature.com/ar

ticles/nature12711?proof=t


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 Importantly, structural analysis suggests that 2019-nCoV might be able to 

bind to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor in humans. The future 

evolution, adaptation, and spread of this virus warrant urgent investigation.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.

gov/m/pubmed/32007145/?

i=2&from=/32004758/related


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  ******************************************************************************



摘要: 实际上,五年前中美病毒科学家通过实际提取、鉴定后又制造出了类Sars新冠病毒的过程,已预知新冠病毒极强传播性的社会风险,而当时所有预知的内容也都与本次发生的疫情状况高度相似。

人体新冠病毒(Coronavirus)渲染图(来源:科学图片库)

由中国武汉开始爆发的新型冠状病毒肺炎疫情持续引发关注,从 1 月 21 日开始证实新冠病毒肯定有“人传人”之后,一场全民参与的抗疫战役在中国,乃至世界正式打响。目前已知 2019 年 12 月开始,从第一起华南海鲜市场病例被证实,与SARS冠状病毒极为类似的“不明病毒肺炎”新型冠状病毒开始蔓延。

但是钛媒体最近在仔细研究和整理新冠病毒相关研究时也发现,其实早在 5 年前,也就是 2015 年,美国病毒学家牵头联合中国病毒专家就曾合作成功提取和鉴定出了一种类SARS新型冠状嵌合病毒,并且之后又人工制造和培养出了一种SARS新型冠状重组病毒。这次的研究成果也被发表在了2015年的国际顶级科学杂志《Nature》上(下称:Nature论文)。

...........


2015年到底发生了什么?

2015年的Nature论文中阐述了一个背景,即当时在中国有一个叫做马蹄蝠的蝙蝠种群,这是一种在岩洞栖息地里的菊头蝠科蝙蝠群体,它们体内正在流行一种类似SARS的病毒——SHC014-CoV,而当时严重急性呼吸综合征冠状病毒(SARS-CoV)和中东呼吸综合征(MERS)-CoV的出现,突出了跨物种传播事件对人类社会的威胁,故而科学家们希望研究在马蹄蝠中流行的这一病毒的致病潜力。

蝙蝠是许多病毒的自然宿主,包括埃博拉病毒、马尔堡病毒,狂犬病毒、亨德拉病毒、尼帕病毒等。由于蝙蝠特殊的免疫系统,携带病毒却极少出现病症。在漫长的进化历程中,蝙蝠成为了上百种病毒的自然宿主。对于病毒溯源的研究来说,蝙蝠地位很特殊,是重点的关注对象。

中国科研人员已发现,蝙蝠体内一个被称为“干扰素基因刺激蛋白-干扰素”的抗病毒免疫通道受到抑制,这使得蝙蝠刚好能够抵御疾病,却不引发强烈的免疫反应。野生蝙蝠可能会携带很多病毒,但是它们都维持在一个较低的水平上。

于是,Vineet D. Menachery教授等利用SARS-CoV的反向遗传系统,从中提取并鉴定了一种嵌合病毒,该病毒在适应小白鼠的SARS-CoV主干中可表达出蝙蝠冠状病毒SHC014的刺突。结果表明,该新型冠状病毒能利用SARS的人类细胞受体——血管紧张素转换酶II(ACE2)的多个同源基因,在人类呼吸道原代细胞中有效复制,并在体外获得与SARS传染性同等的效果。

此外,体内实验证明,该嵌合病毒被复制在小白鼠肺部后,可导致明显的发病征状。评估显示,现有的基于SARS的免疫治疗和预防模式的效果不佳;单克隆抗体和疫苗方法均未能利用这种新的刺突蛋白来中和免疫CoVs感染。

基于以上这些发现,上述科学家们最终成功合成了一株具有感染性的全长SHC014重组病毒,并同时在体外和体内证实了该病毒的强大复制能力。研究结果表明,这种病毒完全可重现SARS-CoV(SARS冠状病毒)的传播风险。

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https://yournews.com/2020/

02/03/1433704/irrefutable-t

he-coronavirus-was-engineered-by-scientists-in

-a-lab/


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https://gnews.org/zh-

hant/107267/


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 实验室里人工合成制造培养

  的冠状病毒引发巨大争议


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Ralph Baric, an infectious-disease researcher at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, last week (November 9) published a study on his team’s efforts to engineer a virus with the surface protein of the SHC014 coronavirus, found in horseshoe bats in China, and the backbone of one that causes human-like severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in mice. The hybrid virus could infect human airway cells and caused disease in mice, according to the team’s results, which were published in Nature Medicine.

The results demonstrate the ability of the SHC014 surface protein to bind and infect human cells, validating concerns that this virus—or other coronaviruses found in bat species—may be capable of making the leap to people without first evolving in an intermediate host, Nature reported. They also reignite a debate about whether that information justifies the risk of such work, known as gain-of-function research. “If the [new] virus escaped, nobody could predict the trajectory,” Simon Wain-Hobson, a virologist at the Pasteur Institute in Paris, told Nature.

In October 2013, the US government put a stop to all federal funding for gain-of-function studies, with particular concern rising about influenza, SARS, and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). “NIH [National Institutes of Health] has funded such studies because they help define the fundamental nature of human-pathogen interactions, enable the assessment of the pandemic potential of emerging infectious agents, and inform public health and preparedness efforts,” NIH Director Francis Collins said in a statement at the time. “These studies, however, also entail biosafety and biosecurity risks, which need to be understood better.”

Baric’s study on the SHC014-chimeric coronavirus began before the moratorium was announced, and the NIH allowed it to proceed during a review process, which eventually led to the conclusion that the work did not fall under the new restrictions, Baric told Nature. But some researchers, like Wain-Hobson, disagree with that decision.

The debate comes down to how informative the results are. “The only impact of this work is the creation, in a lab, of a new, non-natural risk,” Richard Ebright, a molecular biologist and biodefence expert at Rutgers University, told Nature.

But Baric and others argued the study’s importance. “[The results] move this virus from a candidate emerging pathogen to a clear and present danger,” Peter Daszak, president of the EcoHealth Alliance, which samples viruses from animals and people in emerging-diseases hotspots across the globe, told Nature.


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当你说出这样的的话的时候,我真的是被你气的咬牙切齿,那么我就公开的把你的谎言

揭露一下吧,揭露一下你的赤裸裸谎言。


1,从蝙蝠到人,新冠病毒是如何变异的?


SARS病毒模型上有个漂亮的紫色蘑菇丁,请做笔记,它叫spike glycol protain, 简

称S蛋白,这个蛋白很重要,他就是钥匙,能不能传人,就靠它。


蝙蝠身上的病毒,它的S蛋白,是不能传人的,否则,一只蝙蝠可以杀死几十万人不止

,所以吃蝙蝠这个谎言,基本是不可能的。正所谓一把钥匙开一把锁子。


但是,病毒在地球生活了40万年了,他们为了生存下去,他是要不断寻找宿主和变异的。


那么,从蝙蝠到人,冠状病毒要通过不断获得人的蛋白质信息,如果仅仅依靠人来吃,

至少要吃一万年以上,“活着”的病毒才能获得人的蛋白质信息,而且,蝙蝠又不是伴

侣动物,很难从血液、体液等方式获得人的蛋白质信息。


比如猫也有HIV病毒,俗称猫艾滋,但是即使和人亲密接触,猫HIV猫艾滋病毒也不传人

,因为猫艾滋打不开人的密码。


那么,从蝙蝠携带的冠状病毒变异成2019-nCoV冠状病毒,怎样才能发生变异呢?有两

种可能 1. 自然变异 2.实验室修改病毒


第一 自然变异


那么我们先说说自然变异吧,首先以蝙蝠为宿主的病毒,要在自然界找到1——2个中间

宿主,通过这1-2个中间宿主逐渐找到人类的基因密码发生变异。


这种情况基本在2019-nCoV冠状病毒上是不可能发生的,因为如果发现了2019-nCoV那么

首先发现的是这个中间宿主,比如sars病毒会首先追到果子狸身上,但是2019-nCoV却

缺少这个中间宿主,却被高福院士直接追踪到了蝙蝠身上。


高福院士是非常清楚2019-nCoV缺少这一环的,但是他没有说或者没有说清楚,只能说

除了科学家,他还有官员身份,这个身份不能让他说。


所以大自然的变异基本排除。


第二,实验室的修改变异


接着讲,为什么高福院士能越过中间宿主直接找到2019-nCoV的源头蝙蝠身上呢?唯一

的依据就是拥有大量的蝙蝠病毒的大数据库。


好吧,到这里终于追到石正丽研究员这里了,看看石正丽这些年的研究成果和工作,她

的数据库里拥有不少于50种以上的冠状病毒,没有这个蝙蝠冠状病毒的数据库,高福院

士是不可能在很快就筛选出蝙蝠这个宿主的。


所以2019-nCoV的原始病毒,保存在石正丽的病毒库里。


2、好吧,让我们再看一下冠状病毒这个紫色的小蘑菇,人为的换掉它,难吗?不难啊

,如果你不会换这个,那根本不是学生物的,可以这么说吧,中国80%的生物研究生都

会,武汉大学的生物学研究所随便挑几个学生都会换掉,因为导师很厉害。别说饶博士

领导的北大生命科学院,对研究生物的研究生来说,如果不会,就没法拿毕业证。


操作过程就不必讲了,是一种体力活。


3、新冠病毒是如何传播的


好吧,拿到或者换掉冠状病毒的紫色小蘑菇丁之后,实验室接着要做什么呢?当然是要

把病毒种在新的宿主身上啊,记录这些病毒宿主的一些列生化指标和传播途径。


这些宿主是什么呢?那就是实验室的实验动物了,他们真的非常可能,不亚于水深火热

的患者,我们称这些动物为SPF动物。


我还养过SPF动物,哎,我真为自己身为人类而感到羞愧和深深的忏悔,即使我终身食

素,也无法摆脱这种忏悔的心理,何况是身在水生火热疫区的那些可怜的病患,每每想

到这些,我就能想到那些在笼子里同样有灵魂的生灵。


那么,一种被修改了S蛋白的病毒,在宿主之间传播,这里的宿主变成了可选择的SPF动

物——小鼠、大鼠、和猴子。


病毒传播的方式常见的有集中,1.飞沫传播,比如流感病毒 2. 血液传播 比如艾滋病

病毒 3. 母婴传播,比如乙肝病毒。


那么这时候科学家,其实是实验员在修改病毒的时候,就会选择病毒和宿主的那段蛋白

以决定传播方式。


好吧,这就是考验科学家良心和利益的时候了,如果选择了母婴方式传播,即使是繁殖

最快的小鼠,等小鼠成熟怀孕,也要22天为一个孕育的周期,鸡也要21天孵化。选择血

液传播比较危险,如果操作不当很容易污染。


那么为了尽快的出成果,一般会选择最快的传播方式,呼吸道传播了,世界卫生组织公

布的数据:


2019-nCoV通过人体呼吸道和肺部细胞上的ACE2(血管紧张素转化酶2)蛋白受体入侵人体

的。患者刚开始的时候一般是以发热、乏力、干咳为主要表现,但是鼻塞、流涕等。


那么,病毒是怎么准确无误的选择到这个人体的开关呢?石正丽有篇论文做过详细介绍。


2015年,著名的自然医学电子刊物上发表了一篇论文,主要作者为中国科学院武汉病毒

学研究所、武汉大学病毒研究所教授石正丽。


这篇论文说,他们医学研究发现,只要把蝙蝠身上的S蛋白里的ACE2这个受体开关一调

,这个病毒马上就可以传染给人类。利用病毒基因重组技术将蝙蝠的S蛋白和小老鼠的

Sars病毒重组,得到的新病毒可以和人体的血管紧张素转化酶2(ACE2)结合,能很有效

地感染人类的呼吸道细胞,毒性巨大。他们发现新病毒明显地损害了老鼠的肺部,所有

疫苗管失去作用。于是,石正丽团队继续用猴子做实验,模拟病毒在人体上的效果。


这个实验当时引起美国医学界非常大的争议,医学专家Declan Butler也在Nature

Medicine上撰文表示,这种实验没有什么意义,而且风险很大。由于缺乏技术,当时石

正丽团队是和美国北卡罗莱纳的一个医学小组合作。2014年美国疾病控制中心意识到这

个病毒有可能成为生物化学武器时,立刻已经叫停了这种病毒改造计划,并停止拨款给

相关的研究。


开展这种研究,肯定存在很大风险,有很多文章对此表示质疑。


好吧,我和石正丽研究员的对质,基本就到这里了,石研究的实验室员拥有2019-nCoV

原始的以蝙蝠为宿主的病毒样本以及冠状病毒的数据库,也掌握了改造成为2019-nCoV

的方法,我的话就就到这里,至于过程,我没有见到,不分析。


这个新病毒,本来永远封存在保险级别的最高的实验室的,封存或者永远销毁,但是很

不幸,它逃脱了,造成了几万人的感染,几百人的死亡,这个罪魁祸首我们虽然看见它

了,抓住它了,但是我们还没有销毁它消灭它。为此无数的医生和救援人员奔赴一线参

与救援,那才是石正丽研究员说的以命担当。


那么最后我要说两点:


1,我们就是借石正丽十个百个胆子,她也不敢把病毒放到社会上,那是反人类罪,不

仅她不敢,所有的科学工作者都不会这么做,这是违背我们的誓言的:为了人类的健康

所在。


2,这个不是中国的阴谋,这个项目2014年是美国方面资助的,那么停止也是被美国叫

停的,最重要的是没有一个团体或者机构能这场瘟疫中获利,因为这关系到整个人类。


3,这只能是一场盛宴之后的意外。


4,另外我想对施一公、饶毅、以及那些资本追逐的生命科学家和畅想解读生命

密码并投身其中的学者说一句话:解读生命密码,人类还要很长很长的路要走,

可能我们就是一粒粒铺路石,一粒粒小分子小蛋白,不要急功近利,不要过于

妄想,资本的盛宴该冷却一下了。

  *****************************************************************************


 

1、“关于新冠病毒源于人工合成”之所,请贵所认真核实贵所研究员石正丽的论文——A SARS-like cluster of circulating bat coronaviruses shows potential for human emergence发表于2015年11月9日(Published: 09 November 2015 )在该论文中提到“The results indicate that group 2b viruses encoding the SHC014 spike in a wild-type backbone can efficiently use multiple orthologs of the SARS receptor human angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2), replicate efficiently in primary human airway cells and achieve in vitro titers equivalent to epidemic strains of SARS-CoV.

(该论文作者:Vineet D Menachery, Boyd L Yount Jr, Kari Debbink, Sudhakar Agnihothram, Lisa E Gralinski, Jessica A Plante, Rachel L Graham, Trevor Scobey, Xing-Yi Ge, Eric F Donaldson, Scott H Randell, Antonio Lanzavecchia, Wayne A Marasco, Zhengli-Li Shi & Ralph S Baric ”由于我不是专业人士,故只能看出大体意思是“只要把蝙蝠身上的S蛋白里头ACE2这个受体开头只要一调,这个病毒马上就可以传染给人”,请贵所进行公开澄清,这种研究是不是属于人工合成的一部分?在武汉肺炎之前,武汉病毒研究所及其研究员究竟进行了多少这样的研究?

2、关于“病毒是从P4泄露的”之说:对于这个问题进行说明的更不应该仅仅是一封公开信就可以回应的,作为一家科研机构,我认为最科学的方法就是公开武汉病毒研究所的相关记录,这些记录包括但不限于(笔者注:详细内容参见毒是不是从武汉P4实验室泄漏需要用石正丽用生命担保吗) :

1)、2019年10月27日至2020年12月19日期间所有防护服的使用、保管信息以及这些防护服的破损检查信息;

2)、2019年10月27日至2020年12月19日期间武汉P4实验室的所有监控录像交由中国以外的第三方检查,只要中间有断点,那么就不能否认武汉P4实验室存在泄漏嫌疑;

3)、2019年10月27日至2020年12月19日期间P4实验室的空气过滤设备工作状况记录、下水道加热消毒运转情况记录、固体废物焚烧记录;

4)、2019年10月27日至2020年12月19日期间所有离开实验室的人员的防护服化学浴冲洗记录;

5)、2019年10月27日至2020年12月19日期间所有离开办公室的研究所人员的接触史,重点查证有没有任何研究所的人员在七天内接触过任何家禽家畜;

3、对于“军方接管P4”的说法,目前可以在网上查到的相关信息很多,本文仅举一例:中国首席生化武器专家陈薇少将接管武汉P4病毒实验室,如果这一说法不属实,建议武汉病毒研究所向发出此类信息的新闻机构及社交媒体发函,要求更正,而不是目前这种全世界都在关注武汉病毒所的情况下,仅对本所职工和研究生发公开信进行说明,只有在源头上进行澄清才能让“流言止于智者”。另外请武汉病毒研究所说明一下,负责武汉病毒研究所保卫任务的是不是武汉病毒研究所的普通雇员?还是中共军方总参保卫部的人员进行专门警卫?请武汉病毒研究所提供近四年来负责武汉病毒研究所保卫的人员花名册,以正视听。

4、关于“某研究人员因病毒泄露死亡”“某研究生是‘零号病人’”之说:我相信针对这种说辞不必以某研究人员和某研究生的笼统说法进行模糊化处理,直接把信中提到的某研究人员和某研究生的详细情况进行说明即可,因为回应谣言的最好办法就是真相。

5、对于“某研究员实名举报所领导”之说,这不应该是公开信答复的形式,如果是公开信答复的形式,那么应该说明针对某研究员实名举报所领导的情况,武汉病毒研究所是如何处理的、相关部门是如何处理的,既然是实名举报,那么完全可以对实名举报的处理情况进行公开回应,涉及案件信息不便披露的,也直接进行说明,我相信这才是科学的态度。


6、对于武汉病毒研究所在信中提到的“2019年12月30日晚,我所收到武汉市金银潭医院送来的不明原因肺炎样品后,连夜组织力量、连续72小时攻关,于2020年1月2日确定新冠病毒的全基因组序列,1月5日分离得到病毒毒株,1月9日完成国家病毒资源库入库及标准化保藏,1月11日作为国家卫健委指定机构之一向世界卫生组织提交了病毒序列。同时,还在病原鉴定、病毒溯源、病原检测、抗病毒药物及疫苗研制、动物模型建立等方面开展了大量工作,取得了良好进展。此外,我所作为武汉市指定的机构之一,参与了新冠病毒肺炎病原学检测工作,自1月26日起,累计检测疑似新冠肺炎病人咽拭子样本约4000份,我所还派出了由职工和研究生组成的小分队,支援黄冈市病原学检测,为疫情防控工作尽心出力。”,

希望武汉病毒研究所能够就以下事实进行说明:

1)2020年01月24日 17:57 来源于财新网发表的解码新型冠状病毒:SARS的“近亲” 自然宿主或为蝙蝠提到的“一种新型冠状病毒nCoV-2019在武汉引起了急性呼吸综合征的流行。该疫情始于2019年12月12日,在疫情早期,石正丽团队从5名患者身上获得了该病毒的全长基因组序列,它们基本上一致。研究发现,nCoV-2019与SARS-CoV的基因序列一致性达79.5%。此外, nCoV-2019在全基因组水平上与一种蝙蝠中的冠状病毒的序列一致性高达96%。对7种非结构蛋白的成对蛋白序列分析表明,nCoV-2019属于SARSr-CoV。研究还发现,从一名危重病人的支气管肺泡灌洗液中分离出的nCoV-2019病毒,可被数名病人的血清中和。重要的是,该团队证实,这种新的冠状病毒进入细胞的受体与SARS-CoV一样,均为ACE2(人血管紧张素转换酶)。”

据这篇报道,石正丽团队知道武汉肺炎疫情始于2019年12月12日,并且在疫情早期石正丽团队就从5名患者身上获得了该病毒的全长基因序列,这与武汉病毒研究所在本文提到的公开信中提到的“2019年12月30日晚,我所收到武汉市金银潭医院送来的不明原因肺炎样品后,连夜组织力量、连续72小时攻关,于2020年1月2日确定新冠病毒的全基因组序列,1月5日分离得到病毒毒株,1月9日完成国家病毒资源库入库及标准化保藏,1月11日作为国家卫健委指定机构之一向世界卫生组织提交了病毒序列。”自相矛盾,请问石正丽团队是不是属于武汉病毒研究所?另外请武汉病毒研究所确认财新报道中提到的石正丽团队获得得全长基因组序列与武汉病毒研究所在本文所提公开信中的基因序列是否是同一份?因为这牵扯到武汉病毒所没有提到的另一个颇受外界质疑的说法——

2)中共先后三次向WHO等国际机构上传了武汉肺炎病毒的基因序列,而前两次是故意篡改了基因序列的。相关说法如下(据1/19/2020 路安艾时评:为什么财新胡舒立要一再否认武汉SARS病毒和舟山蝙蝠病毒的关联性?中共和该病毒有什么关系?该病毒是否已经进化具备人传人大爆发可能性?为什么中共要不断隐瞒确诊案例? ):

在这一次武汉SARS爆发后,中共先后在2019年12月1日、2020年1月12日两次篡改提交给世界卫生组织(WHO)的武汉SARS病毒序列,在2020年1月14日向世界卫生组织(WHO)提交了最终的病毒序列。

总之,作为一家中国最权威的病毒研究机构,我们希望武汉病毒研究所能够正视外界的质疑,并且以科学的态度和方法来澄清质疑。

一名关心武汉病毒研究所的网友

2020年2月20日

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https://www.brighteon.com

/a4d2afed-56c6-4602-b6ab-

6f777ba4a69a


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Image result for 冠状病毒是人工病毒 生物攻击不是梦

 

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Isolation of a new bat virus in a study published in the Journal of Virology on Dec. 30, 2015, titled “Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Bat Coronavirus Closely Related to the Direct Progenitor of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus,” found that the virus, named SL-CoV-WIV1, was almost identical to Rs3367 with 99.9% genome sequence identity. The researchers identified that WIV1 can use human ACE2 as an entry receptor and has the potential to infect human cells in this study. Subsequently, the same research group isolated another bat virus that can use ACE2 and infect human cell lines in the lab in 2015.

In addition, Dr. Shi’s group conducted another study in 2018 to address the question of whether some bat viruses can infect humans via using human ACE2, without the need of an intermediate host. But to the date of their study, “no direct transmission of SARS-Like CoVs from bats to people has been reported”.


2015年12月30日发表在《病毒学杂志》上的一项研究中,名为「与严重急性呼吸系统综合症冠状病毒直接源细胞密切相关的新型蝙蝠冠状病毒的分离和鉴定」的研究发现了一种新的病毒,名为SL-CoV-WIV1,其基因与Rs3367几乎相同,具有99.9%的基因组序列相似性。研究人员确定,WIV1可以使用人类ACE2作为进入受体,并有可能感染人类细胞。随后,同一研究小组于2015年在实验室中分离出了另一种可以使用ACE2并感染人类细胞系的蝙蝠病毒。

此外,石博士的小组于2018年进行了另一项研究,以解决一些蝙蝠病毒是否可以通过使用人ACE2感染人类而无需中间宿主的问题。但是到迄今他们的研究,「尚未有类似SARS的冠状病毒可以从蝙蝠直接传给人类的报导」。

Zhengli Shi’s group at the Institute of Virology at Wuhan was successful in isolating two infectious clones of bat SARS-Like CoV: SL-CoV-WIV1 and WIV16 from bats. In their further studies, they found out that these SL-CoV Spike protein (S protein) “[were] unable to use any of the three ACE2 molecules as its receptor; Second, the SL-CoV failed to enter cells expressing the bat ACE2; Third, the chimeric S covering the previously defined receptor-binding domain gained its ability to enter cells via human ACE2, albeit with different efficiencies for different constructs; Fourth, a minimal insert region ( Amino acids 310 to 518 ) was found to be sufficient to convert the SL-CoV S from non-ACE2 binding to human ACE2 binding.”

Therefore, Shi’s group found in a study published in the Journal of Virology in February 2008 that the natural bat coronavirus cannot use the human ACE2 receptor to infect humans. However, when inserted with some amino acids from position 310 to 518 for the bat CoV S protein sequence, the chimeric bat CoV can use the human ACE2 receptor.

Meanwhile, another research group led by Dr. Li published their finding in 2013 that 5 amino acid sites on CoV spike proteins are crucial in making the binding to human ACE2 on SARS virus (those positions are Y442, L472, N479, D480, T487). These 5 sites just lie in the region that the Shi group noted to be important above.

Later, Li and Shi jointly conducted a gain-of-function study published in the Journal of Virology in September 2015 on the MERS virus and a bat virus (strain HKU4) in 2015. Since MERS virus can enter human cells but HKU4 can not, they introduced 2 single mutations in the HKU4 spike protein and found that the new mutant S protein can enable HKU4 to enter human cells. If they mutated 2 sites in MERS spike, the resulting MERS pseudovirus (experimental virus) cannot enter human cells anymore.


武汉市病毒研究所的石正丽研究小组成功地从蝙蝠中分离出两个蝙蝠SARS样冠状病毒的传染性克隆:SL-CoV-WIV1和WIV16。在进一步的研究中,他们发现这些SL-CoV 突触蛋白(S蛋白)「无法使用三种ACE2分子中的任何一种作为其受体。其次,SL-CoV无法进入表达蝙蝠ACE2分子的细胞中。第三,覆盖先前定义的受体结合域的嵌合体S蛋白通过人类ACE2分子获得了进入细胞的能力,尽管对不同构建体的效率不同。第四,发现最小的插入区(氨基酸310至518)足以将SL-CoV S蛋白从非ACE2分子结合转化与人类ACE2分子结合。」

因此,石的小组在2008年2月发表在《病毒学杂志》上的一项研究中发现,天然蝙蝠冠状病毒无法利用人类ACE2受体来感染人类。但是,当在蝙蝠CoV S蛋白序列310到518的位置插入一些氨基酸时,嵌合体蝙蝠CoV可以使用人类ACE2受体。

同时,由李博士领导的另一个研究小组于2013年发表了他们的发现,冠状病毒突触蛋白上的5个氨基酸位点对SARS病毒与人类ACE2的结合至关重要(位置分别为Y442,L472 ,N479,D480,T487) 。这五个点就在石小组在上面指出的重要区域内。

后来,李和石于2015年9月在《病毒学杂志》上联合发表了项「功能获得」的研究。该研究于2015年针对MERS病毒和一种蝙蝠病毒(HKU4株)进行了研究。他们在HKU4突触蛋白中引入了2个单突变,发现新的突变S蛋白可以使HKU4进入人体细胞。如果他们在MERS S蛋白突变2个位点,则产生的MERS伪病毒(实验病毒)将无法再进入人类细胞。

To their surprise, the chimeric virus (SHC014-MA15) can use SHC014 spike to bind to human ACE2 receptor and enter human cells. SHC014-MA15 can also cause disease in mice and cause death as well. Existing vaccines to SARS cannot protect animals from SHC014-MA15 infection. Therefore, these chimeric virus studies can lead to the generation of more pathogenic, more deadly CoV strains in mammalian models.

Due to the U.S. government-mandated pause on the gain-of-function (GOF) studies, this international research did not proceed further at that time. However, there is no evidence that Shi’s group in China stopped any further study on the track of introducing GOF mutations on the CoV. And it is clear that Shi’s group already mastered the reverse-engineering technology that is sufficient to introduce mutation in current SARS-CoV or SARS-Like CoV to create mutant infectious coronavirus.


令他们惊讶的是,嵌合病毒(SHC014-MA15)可以使用SHC014突触结合人类ACE2受体并进入人的细胞。 SHC014-MA15也可引起小鼠疾病并引起死亡。现有的SARS疫苗不能保护动物免受SHC014-MA15感染。因此,这些嵌合病毒研究可导致在哺乳动物模型中产生更致病,且更致命的冠状病毒株。

由于美国政府强制暂停「功能获得」(GOF)研究,因此该国际研究当时并未进一步进行。但是,没有证据显示石博士在中国的小组停止了在CoV中引入GOF突变的进一步研究。很明显,石的研究小组已经掌握了逆向工程技术,该技术足以在当前的SARS冠状病毒或SARS 样冠状病毒中引入突变以产生突变型的传染性冠状病毒。


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t has been two months since the outbreak of the coronavirus in Wuhan and its spread has shown no signs of slowing down in China. More than 35 Chinese cities have been put on lockdown by Chinese authorities in an attempt to isolate confirmed and suspected cases. The lives of millions of people are in danger as the virus shows signs of spreading further in China as well as internationally.


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https://spark.adobe.com/page/mKbM29QGon7kZ/

来源:ZeroHedge,February 9, 2020

作者:XIANG ZHANG via The Epoch Times

新闻翻译:TCC, ignoreme, Roberts

评论:TCC

在短短两个多月的时间,武汉冠状病毒已经引起了中国三、四十个城市封城,世卫组织宣布为全球紧急事件,多国取消与中共航班等等,其影响不仅在公共卫生上,也对全球经济正带来未知的后果。

以流行病学及病毒学来说,病毒的起源以及可能宿主的掌握,对于流行病的控制是非常关键的。例如,如果老鼠是该病毒的中间宿主,那么在受感染的老鼠仍在自由活动的情况下,关闭城市以限制人们的行动是徒劳无功的。

疫情爆发已经两个月了,这个全球关注的起源问题,迄今扑朔迷离,众说纷纭。在这篇报导中,引用了多篇的学术论文与报告,从分子测序到蛋白分析比对,来找寻这病毒的源头。

蝙蝠与华南海鲜市场

病毒要建立人畜相传的传播并不是一件容易的事。基于演化史分析的报导,虽然此病毒基因序列与蝙蝠的冠状病毒非常相似,但一般冠状病毒很少会以高传播率从动物传播到人类的。并且蝙蝠冠状病毒直接跳传到人类的机会更渺小,尤其是武汉的大部分蝙蝠正在冬眠,且华南海鲜市场不卖蝙蝠。根据研究SARS(果子狸))与MERS(骆驼)的中间宿主所得的经验, 科学家又猜想是否这新病毒也有中间宿主?在一月一日华南海鲜市场关闭后,疑云重重,中共一直未提出动物采样的结果来进行分析讨论。关闭后,华南海鲜市场被打扫干净,’犯罪现场’消失了,如何在没有证据的情况下解决一个案件呢?

武汉病毒研究所与SARS样冠状病毒的研究

武汉新型冠状病毒在结构上带有非常重要的触突蛋白(S蛋白),据研究其结构与人类的血管紧张素转化酶2(ACE2)完全相同,可与人的细胞表面的ACE2受体结合,进而感染人类细胞。武汉病毒学研究所早在2013年《自然》杂志上发表的一篇文章,题为“使用ACE2受体的蝙蝠SARS样冠状病毒的分离和鉴定“。更巧的是,该研究室主要领导人石正丽是研究SARS样冠状病毒“功能获得”生物工程方面的权威。天然蝙蝠冠状病毒无法利用人类ACE2受体来感染人类。但是,如果在S蛋白序列某些位置插入一些氨基酸时,便可以利用人类ACE2受体,而造成感染。这在其2015表的文章,利用人工引发突变的新型冠状病毒可导致在哺乳动物模型中产生更致病,且更致命的冠状病毒株,可见一般。这对于人类的健康毫无帮助却有巨害, 因此被美国政府强制暂停这方面研究。但是否该研究所继续研究就不得而知了。

武汉新型冠状病毒动物宿主在华南海鲜市场的可能性

《柳叶刀》最新发表的一篇文章报道说:“冠状病毒在每个复制周期中都产生的突变的情况下,其平均进化速率约为每个位点每年10⁴个核苷酸取代。”也就是说,这种病毒每个复制周期都有突变,不同的蝙蝠作为宿主极不可能具有同样序列的病毒。如果还需要另一只动物作为中间宿主,这样病毒相同的机会甚至更小。令人惊讶的是,此篇描述了来自不同患者的病毒序列几乎完全相同。这在自然界中是不太可能发生的。

因此,对于武汉冠状病毒的爆发是否是由于冠状病毒的泄露或者对研究的实验动物处理不当,引起了严重的疑问。如果中共当局拒绝透露动物样本的检测数据,则可能意味着有意掩盖了2019-nCoV爆发的真实起源。

武汉冠状病毒的神秘起源

中国继续拒绝发布动物抽样检测的数据

STR/AFP via Getty Images

020年2月6日,中国湖北省武汉市的「火眼」实验室的一名实验室技术人员正在研究从病人样本中检测新冠状病毒。

分析

自从武汉冠状病毒爆发以来已经两个月了,它的传播在中国没有丝毫放缓的迹象。中共当局已经封锁了超过35个中国城市,以便隔离已确认和可疑的病例。随着该病毒显示出在中国以及国际上进一步传播的迹象,数百万人的生命处于危险之中。

中共官方调查对新型冠状病毒起源上存在很大落差。为了遏制这种病毒,首先需要了解这种被认为起源于动物的病毒是如何从动物感染到人的。为此,中共当局需要公布其动物测试数据和样本。从疫情中心点收集的动物样品的测试结果,可对哪些动物可以充当新冠状病毒的中间宿主,提供重要的见解。

这对于控制流行病至关重要。例如,如果老鼠是该病毒的中间宿主,那么在受感染的老鼠仍在自由移动的情况下,关闭城市以限制人们的行动是徒劳无功的。动物样本的结果也可以指导决策,以减少再次爆发的风险。

病毒的动物起源假说

基于演化史分析的科学报导,已经研究了新型冠状病毒的序列,并将其与其他冠状病毒序列进行了对比,发现它可能起源于蝙蝠。武汉病毒研究所的研究人员发现,在患者体内发现的病毒中的基因组,其中96%与现有蝙蝠冠状病毒的基因组相同。但是也有其他理论。例如,一项中国研究表明,蛇是向人类传播的来源。但是,许多科学家认为,爬行动物是一种不太可能的来源,而像大鼠,猪和一些鸟类等哺乳动物,一直是冠状病毒的主要宿主。

考虑到这一点,病毒基因组序列的演化史分析研究上,需要得到动物研究的支持,以确认感染的起源,并确定是否存在中间宿主。

病毒要建立人畜相传的传播并不是一件容易的事,并且冠状病毒很少会以高传播率从动物传播到人类的。而冠状病毒直接从蝙蝠向人类跳传的机会甚至更少。为了感染新宿主,病毒表面蛋白和/或病毒包膜和结构基因需要发生突变,所以突变的病毒可以结合并进入新物种的细胞,并有效地在新宿主中,完成复制周期。

一些科学家认为,冠状病毒可以直接跳传向人类,而不会变异或穿过中间物种。但是,以前的冠状病毒爆发上,显然需要中间宿主来建立人畜相传的传播方式。许多研究表明,在2003年SARS爆发期间,蝙蝠冠状病毒从其天然寄主蝙蝠跃传到果子狸,然后又跃传到人类,在MERS爆发时,它从蝙蝠跃传到骆驼,然后跃传到人类。因此,果子狸和骆驼被视为人畜相传的中间宿主。

由于蝙蝠在疫情爆发时并未在武汉的华南市场(感染的中心)出售,因此这表明存在着另一种中间动物宿主,该宿主可能已将病毒转移给人类。

最令人困惑的是,没有关于在武汉的任何疫情中心,尤其是在华南海鲜市场上,采集动物样本进行检测的报导。这是为了能鉴定哪些动物可能是这种新型武汉冠状病毒的宿主或中间宿主。

中国科学家最近在《柳叶刀》(Lancet)杂志上发表了一份报告,该报告指出:「大部分最早的病例包括报导曾接触过华南海鲜批发市场的病例」,这些患者可能是通过人畜共传或环境暴露的感染途径。在另一份《柳叶刀》杂志的报告,中国疾病预防控制中心的科学家声称, 「根据当前数据,造成武汉爆发的2019-nCoV似乎也可能是来自最初宿主的蝙蝠,并且有可能通过在华南海鲜市场上出售而目前未知的野生动物传播给人类的。」

但是,到目前为止,尚未公布任何关于关闭的华南海鲜市场的野生动物数量和种类的信息。也没有在2020年1月1日市场关闭时,任何关于如何管理或处置这些动物的信息。更没有发布有关多少动物样本通过病毒核酸检测方法检测SARS-CoV或武汉冠状病毒的信息。

中共官方新闻机构新华社1月26日报导,在华南海鲜市场采集的585个环境样本中,有33个样本的新冠状病毒核酸检测呈阳性,这表明该病毒源自野生动物或在在市场出售的种群。但是,这些样本来自环境,而不是直接从动物的。

如果在关闭造成疫情爆发的华南海鲜市场时或关闭之前,没有收集和测试动物样本,这将是武汉市公共卫生委员会和中共疾病预防控制中心的大失败。这将类似于对食源性疾病爆发进行调查,却没取得与疾病爆发相关的饭店食品样本,而是只对餐桌表面的拭子进行测试。

华南海鲜市场关闭的背景

2019-nCoV在中国引起了快速感染,并传播到中国以外的其他国家,从而引发了全球卫生危机。

众所周知,华南海鲜市场是收集和分发活的和死的野生动物的主要渠道。其中包括在海鲜市场东部出售的活狼,刺猬,鹿,鸟,蛇,山羊,野兔和野猪。

武汉市医疗卫生委员会于2019年12月31日宣布了多例与华南海鲜市场有关的肺炎病例。武汉市政府于1月1日关闭了该海鲜市场。

中国医学记者于2019年12月31日,即1月1日该市场关闭的前一天晚上访问了该市场,发现那里的卫生状况极差,野生动物的尸体和器官随意乱丢。这表明在强制关闭后市场上仍存在相对大量的野生动物。

没有公布关于海鲜市场野生动物的信息

然而,在1月1日市场关闭时,对于存在动物的数量和种类,多少动物被测试了冠状病毒,以及在1月1日市场关闭后如何管理或处置这些动物的信息,都未公布。中共媒体,第一财经,询问了在市场上出售的野生动物的下落,并确定武汉市政府完全没有披露。

香港大学新兴传染病国家重点实验室现任(中国事务)主任关毅博士,于1月21日访问武汉,目的是确定动物来源。他在接受媒体采访时提到,当地人拒绝与他合作。他指出,由于现在市场已经关闭,很难调查该病毒的来源。他说:「关闭后,湖南海鲜市场被打扫干净,’犯罪现场’消失了,如何在没有证据的情况下解决一个案件呢?」

中共疾病预防控制中心主任高福说:「很明显,感染源是野生动物,但由于海鲜市场关闭,我们不知道是哪种物种。」

没有确认病毒来源或动物中间宿主带来的巨大风险

美国疾病控制中心(CDC)表示:「对于新型冠状病毒如何传播我们知之甚少」目前了解到的是新型冠状病毒的感染是通过呼吸道飞沫或者是人与人之间的接触。

香港大学的Guan Yi 和Kwok-yung Yuen等在2003年从中国活体动物交易市场(售卖)的果子狸身上识别出严重的急性呼吸系统冠状病毒(SARS-CoV)。他们的研究致使广东禁止贩卖果子狸并关闭了野生动物交易市场。这有助于限制SARS疫情。

通常来说,如果一个动物被鉴定为疾病的宿主或者传播源,主管部门和CDC将会开始实施预防和控制措施,比如,宣传,对生病动物进行适当的检疫隔离,和处理病死动物尸体,同时监控潜在的人畜相传的传播途径。

啮齿类动物是已知的会在海鲜市场衍生。比如,随着日本一个大型鱼类市场的关闭,成千上万的啮齿类动物会被释放出来。

华南海鲜市场也被啮齿动物侵扰。如果啮齿动物被视为冠状病毒潜在宿主,则鼠类在隔离区外活动也存在风险。鉴于深圳患者的粪便中被检测出冠状病毒,并且蝙蝠类SARS病毒株从蝙蝠粪便中被分离出来,所以除了呼吸道飞沫传播,2019新型冠状病毒也可能通过粪-口传播,需要警告人们避免接触老鼠这样的动物。因此,如果啮齿动物确实是2019新型冠状病毒感染的源头或宿主,那么需要引起国际社会的注意。

同样的,如果海鲜市场的鸟类或其他类动物是新型冠状病毒的宿主,则动物的种类,数量,病毒类型,生物学反应和病毒潜在传播途径等相关信息需要被认定和报告给国际社会,以便采取相应的防范措施。

如果中共当局没有从海鲜市场贩卖的动物和鸟类身上收集鼻腔分泌物,粪便和血液样本,这会是无能和严重的渎职行为。对于人畜相传传播途径,这次爆发中的病毒变异趋势,和当前措施的漏洞,对动物样本检测会揭示出非常重要的信息。

除了华南海鲜市场,还有其他的爆发中心吗?

中共疾病预防控制中心确实发布了来自于海鲜市场环境样本的数据,并建议这里的野生动物(不确定物种)是病毒源头。

2020年1月29日,包括中共疾控中心的冯博士的一个小组在《新英格兰医学杂志》发布了一篇题为《新型冠状病毒感染肺炎在中国武汉的早期传播动力学》的报告。报告称「虽然最早的病例大部分与华南海鲜批发市场相关,并且这些病患可能是通过人畜或者接触到其环境被感染…大部分的最早期病例被报告接触过华南海鲜市场,但是,没接触过海鲜市场的病例数量在12月底成指数倍增长。」

2019新型冠状病毒来自于蝙蝠类SARS病毒(Bat-SL-CoV)的可能性

在《柳叶刀》杂志2020年1月29日发表的一篇文章,题为「2019新型冠状病毒的基因组特征和流行病学:病毒源头和受体结合的意义」称:「对2019新型冠状病毒完整的基因组进行的海量搜寻揭示了基因库中可用的相关病毒中最接近的是蝙蝠类SARS冠状病毒:bat-SL-CoV-ZC45(序列相同性87.99%,查询覆盖率99%)以及另外一个来自蝙蝠的SARS样β冠状病毒:bat-SL-CoV-ZXC21(登记号:MG772934;23 相同性87.23%)。」 「值得注意的是,2019新型冠状病毒株与SARS和MERS冠状病毒的基因相似度不高(分别大约是79%和50%)。」

这个信息可能解释了2019新型冠状病毒与来源于蝙蝠的SARS 样β冠状病毒具有很近的生物学相关性,而且蝙蝠可能是此病毒的原始宿主。然而,作者没有明确指出蝙蝠是2019新型冠状病毒的唯一宿主。

该论文指出「蝙蝠具有重要性,但几个事实表明其他动物也可能是蝙蝠与人类之间的中间宿主。首先,此次爆发在2019年12月底被首次报告,武汉的大部分种类的蝙蝠正在冬眠。其次,华南海鲜市场并没有发现售卖蝙蝠,但是贩卖各种非水生动物包括哺乳动物。第三,2019新型冠状病毒与近亲bat-SL-CoVZC45和bat-SL-CoVZXC21 间的序列同一性小于90 %,这反应了它们之间有相对较长的分支,这两种病毒不是2019新冠状病毒的直接祖先。第四,对于SARS和MERS冠状病毒,蝙蝠是其自然携带者,其他动物是(果子狸是SARS-CoV35的,单峰骆驼是MERS-Cov的)中间宿主。因此,在现有数据基础上,蝙蝠非常可能是武汉爆发的2019新型冠状病毒的原始宿主,且有可能通过华南海鲜市场售卖的其他现在还未知的野生动物传给人类的。」

他们提到,武汉的大部分蝙蝠正在冬眠,且华南海鲜市场也没有售卖蝙蝠。因此通过与蝙蝠的直接接触来传播病毒给人或其他动物的可能性是极小的。

武汉病毒研究所对蝙蝠类SARS冠状病毒的研究

石正丽和武汉病毒学研究所的其他几位研究人员于2013年在《自然》杂志上发表了一篇文章,题为「使用ACE2受体的蝙蝠SARS样冠状病毒的分离和鉴定」。

在该研究中,他们的团队从蝙蝠的肛门拭子或粪便样本中收集了2株来自蝙蝠SARS样冠状病毒的序列,分别称为RsSHC014和Rs3367。他们与人类SARS-CoV Tor2菌株核苷酸序列有95%的相似性。

2015年12月30日发表在《病毒学杂志》上的一项研究中,名为「与严重急性呼吸系统综合症冠状病毒直接源细胞密切相关的新型蝙蝠冠状病毒的分离和鉴定」的研究发现了一种新的病毒,名为SL-CoV-WIV1,其基因与Rs3367几乎相同,具有99.9%的基因组序列相似性。研究人员确定,WIV1可以使用人类ACE2作为进入受体,并有可能感染人类细胞。随后,同一研究小组于2015年在实验室中分离出了另一种可以使用ACE2并感染人类细胞系的蝙蝠病毒。

此外,石博士的小组于2018年进行了另一项研究,以解决一些蝙蝠病毒是否可以通过使用人ACE2感染人类而无需中间宿主的问题。但是到迄今他们的研究,「尚未有类似SARS的冠状病毒可以从蝙蝠直接传给人类的报导」。

他们从居住在带有病毒的蝙蝠洞附近的218名居民中收集了血清,那些洞穴是石博士小组收集病毒样本的地方。然后进行ELISA分析,以检测抗蝙蝠SARS冠状病毒的抗体,如果抗体存在,则表示事先暴露于蝙蝠冠状病毒。他们发现,在218名受试者中,只有6名(2.7%)显示出血清阳性,这表明可能感染了蝙蝠SARS-CoV或相关病毒。在过去的12个月中,这6名阳性患者没有临床症状。他们从距云南1000公里处的武汉市的随机献血者那里收集了240个样本作为对照组,武汉市的血液样本对SARS样冠状病毒全没有显示出阳性。

该数据表明,蝙蝠病毒感染人类的机会非常低,甚至在生活于蝙蝠洞附近的人群中也只小于2.9%的机会,并且(这些感染者)没有明显的症状。截至2018年,武汉市并无蝙蝠感染人类的报告。

[ZH:2020年2月,她的研究小組在《自然》雜誌上發表了一篇論文,表明吉利德科學公司擁有的實驗藥物瑞得西韋對體外抑制病毒產生積極作用,並代表武漢病毒研究所在中國申請了該藥物的專利。]

武汉病毒研究所在蝙蝠SARS样冠状病毒「功能获得」生物工程方面亮丽的成绩

武汉市病毒研究所的石正丽研究小组成功地从蝙蝠中分离出两个蝙蝠SARS样冠状病毒的传染性克隆:SL-CoV-WIV1和WIV16。在进一步的研究中,他们发现这些SL-CoV 突触蛋白(S蛋白)「无法使用三种ACE2分子中的任何一种作为其受体。其次,SL-CoV无法进入表达蝙蝠ACE2分子的细胞中。第三,覆盖先前定义的受体结合域的嵌合体S蛋白通过人类ACE2分子获得了进入细胞的能力,尽管对不同构建体的效率不同。第四,发现最小的插入区(氨基酸310至518)足以将SL-CoV S蛋白从非ACE2分子结合转化与人类ACE2分子结合。」

因此,石的小组在2008年2月发表在《病毒学杂志》上的一项研究中发现,天然蝙蝠冠状病毒无法利用人类ACE2受体来感染人类。但是,当在蝙蝠CoV S蛋白序列310到518的位置插入一些氨基酸时,嵌合体蝙蝠CoV可以使用人类ACE2受体。

同时,由李博士领导的另一个研究小组于2013年发表了他们的发现,冠状病毒突触蛋白上的5个氨基酸位点对SARS病毒与人类ACE2的结合至关重要(位置分别为Y442,L472 ,N479,D480,T487) 。这五个点就在石小组在上面指出的重要区域内。

后来,李和石于2015年9月在《病毒学杂志》上联合发表了项「功能获得」的研究。该研究于2015年针对MERS病毒和一种蝙蝠病毒(HKU4株)进行了研究。他们在HKU4突触蛋白中引入了2个单突变,发现新的突变S蛋白可以使HKU4进入人体细胞。如果他们在MERS S蛋白突变2个位点,则产生的MERS伪病毒(实验病毒)将无法再进入人类细胞。

此外,石博士的小组加入了一个国际小组,共同用云南收获的蝙蝠病毒SHC014产生嵌合病毒。因为他们知道SHC014不太可能与人类ACE2结合,所以他们「在具有复制能力的小鼠适应SARS-CoV骨干的背景下合成了SHC014突触蛋白」。因此,这是一种具有SARS-CoV小鼠适应性骨干(MA15)但带有SHC014突触的实验室工程病毒。

令他们惊讶的是,嵌合病毒(SHC014-MA15)可以使用SHC014突触结合人类ACE2受体并进入人的细胞。 SHC014-MA15也可引起小鼠疾病并引起死亡。现有的SARS疫苗不能保护动物免受SHC014-MA15感染。因此,这些嵌合病毒研究可导致在哺乳动物模型中产生更致病,且更致命的冠状病毒株。

由于美国政府强制暂停「功能获得」(GOF)研究,因此该国际研究当时并未进一步进行。但是,没有证据显示石博士在中国的小组停止了在CoV中引入GOF突变的进一步研究。很明显,石的研究小组已经掌握了逆向工程技术,该技术足以在当前的SARS冠状病毒或SARS 样冠状病毒中引入突变以产生突变型的传染性冠状病毒。

ZH:2020年2月,《南華早報》報道說,石正麗進行了長達十年的工作,為建立全球最大的蝙蝠相關病毒數據庫之一,並為科學界提供了瞭解該病毒的「開端」。 《南華早報》還報道說,石是中國社交媒體上人身攻擊的焦點,他們聲稱武漢病毒研究所是該病毒的來源,這導致石聲稱:「我用我的生命發誓,[該病毒]与实验室无关。 」她并且在《南华早报》要求对这些攻击发表评论时,石答道:「我的时间必须花在更重要的事情上。」

《财新》报道说,石进一步发表了公开声明,反对「有关新病毒来源的阴谋论」,并引用她的话说:

「 新的2019冠状病毒是对人类不文明的生活习惯的一种惩罚。我,石正丽,用我的生命担保与我们的实验室无关」]

有趣的是,石的研究小组于2020年1月23日在bioRxiv上发表了文章,他们在云南发现的一种新的蝙蝠冠状病毒,名为BatCov RaTG13,与2019-nCoV有96.2%的整体基因组序列相同性。但是,这种病毒从未在他们的研究中提及或发表过。

在一系列他们提供的补充材料和方法信息中,他们收集的2019-nCoV与RATG13病毒之间共享3个序列,却与其他SARS或蝙蝠SARS 样病毒系列中的任何一个也不共享。这3个序列位于突触蛋白的N末端附近,分别是GTNGTKR,NNKSWM,RSYLTPGD。

2019-nCoV动物宿主在华南海鲜市场的可能性

《柳叶刀》最新发表的一篇题为「 2019年新型冠状病毒的基因组特征和流行病学:对病毒起源和受体结合的影响」的文章报道说:「作为典型的RNA病毒,冠状病毒在每个复制周期中都产生的突变的情况下,其平均进化速率约为每个位点每年10⁴个核苷酸取代。因此,令人惊讶的是,此处描述的来自不同患者的2019-nCoV序列几乎相同,具有超过99.9%的序列相同性。这一发现表明,2019-nCoV在很短的时间内具有同一个来源,并且被相对迅速地发现。」

由于每个周期都有突变,不同的蝙蝠作为宿主极不可能具有同样序列的病毒。如果仅仅蝙蝠不足以传播病毒,则需要另一只动物作为中间宿主,这样病毒相同的机会甚至更小。由于海鲜市场并非爆发的唯一来源,因此可以合理地假设,如果另一只动物是该病毒的中间宿主,则该动物需要与蝙蝠接触,允许蝙蝠冠状病毒在其中繁殖,并在最后,该动物需要具备将病毒传播给与华南海鲜市场接触或没有接触的人的能力。

因此,对于武汉冠状病毒的爆发是否是由于冠状病毒的泄露或者对研究的实验动物处理不当,引起了严重的疑问。对疫情来源的合理公开查询,值得中共当局、外国疾病控制和实验室操作的专家进行透明调查。这不仅与医学伦理或实验室安全操作的责任制有关,还与遏制病毒爆发的当前努力直接相关。

尽管尚未确定2019-nCoV的动物宿主,但可能的动物宿主和潜在的人畜共传的数据和信息对于在国际范围内预防和控制疾病至关重要。

华南海鲜市场蕴藏着巨大的动物宿主群。华南海鲜市场的动物数据和分析结果需要由中共当局立即披露,即使结果是阴性的。美国疾病预防控制中心和世界卫生组织官员必须要求中共当局发布有关动物试验数据的信息。

如果中国当局拒绝透露动物样本的检测数据,则可能意味着有意掩盖了2019-nCoV爆发的真实起源。

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浏览(892) (6) 评论(5)
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作者:Pascal 留言时间:2020-02-23 16:53:41

千百条信息中,一冰寥寥两句,直击要害,厉害!

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回复 | 0
作者:一冰 留言时间:2020-02-23 09:21:44

看得我头皮发麻,原来天朝埋伏着辣么多当代门格尔,厉害!

回复 | 0
作者:Pascal 留言时间:2020-02-23 04:09:15

WASHINGTON — As Chinese officials face allegations of locking down information about the spread of the coronavirus, U.S. intelligence agencies have been helping in governmentwide efforts to gather information about the disease’s global spread.

Already, some of the best information about the coronavirus and the Chinese government’s response to it is coming from military channels, according to two sources familiar with the matter.

“China’s behavior causes the intelligence community to get involved,” said one of those sources, a former intelligence official. “Because no data means spying.”

The former official indicated that the most important issue being tracked is the Chinese leadership plans for what is known as “continuity of operations,” meaning the ability for the government to maintain its basic functions during an unprecedented crisis, such as nuclear war or natural disaster.

In China, this might involve senior leaders leaving the country or seeking safety in shelters, “like U.S. doomsday bunkers,” said the source. The intel community, said the source, is seeing some signs Chinese officials are making those kinds of contingency plans, indicating the potential level of concern within Beijing.

Tracking the coronavirus. (Photo illustration: Yahoo News; photos: AP [2], Getty Images)Tracking the coronavirus. (Photo illustration: Yahoo News; photos: AP [2], Getty Images)

The intelligence community’s involvement comes amid international frustrations with China’s reticence to accept international assistance. The World Health Organization, including American experts, was finally allowed to visit China on Monday to do field research on the disease but has been delayed and will not, as of now, be visiting the alleged location of the origin of the outbreak due to what Chinese officials described as a lack of time and resources to host international experts.

At least officially, however, the WHO has been complimentary of China's efforts. In a statement, the WHO told Yahoo News that “since the beginning of the outbreak, China [has] shared data in a transparent manner.”

However, the organization, which receives funding from China, has come under fire for what many have called a delayed response to the outbreak and a failure to pressure Chinese leadership into further openness.

In the United States, the Office of the Director of National Intelligence, the CIA’s Global Issues Mission Center and the Defense Intelligence Agency’s National Center for Medical Intelligence have all been supporting the White House Task Force on the coronavirus, according to three intelligence sources familiar with the matter. The task force is led by the Department of Health and Human Services and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

The National Center for Medical Intelligence is based in Fort Detrick, Md., and tracks disease outbreaks and potential danger to the U.S. military, as well as preparedness of foreign leaders to respond to pandemics or other related attacks. A military spokesman told Yahoo News the agency “is closely monitoring the coronavirus outbreak and the worldwide response to it.”

In this instance of the coronavirus, the intelligence community has to figure out a way to quickly gather information about a rapidly progressing potential pandemic without risking human sources’ lives, losing track of other threats or getting in the way of the CDC and WHO, which take primary responsibility for response and outreach.

Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, director general of the World Health Organization, at a press conference about the coronavirus on Feb. 10 in Geneva. (Salvatore Di Nolfi/Keystone via AP)Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, director general of the World Health Organization, at a press conference about the coronavirus on Feb. 10 in Geneva. (Salvatore Di Nolfi/Keystone via AP)

As of Thursday, the WHO reported over 75,000 confirmed cases of coronavirus disease globally, as well as 2,129 deaths, the majority in China, notifying travelers that the global risk assessment for the disease is “high.” Symptoms can range from a common cold to more severe respiratory symptoms, and is transmitted from person to person.

A global pandemic has long been a concern to U.S. national security officials, and planning for such outbreaks has been a crucial part of government planning in previous administrations.

“Pandemic disease poses one of the greatest threats to global stability and security,” wrote Lisa Monaco, who served as President Barack Obama’s homeland security and counterterrorism adviser, in an op-ed on the LawFare, a national security blog. She also noted that the Trump White House no longer has a “dedicated unit to oversee preparedness for pandemics,” as there was under Obama during the West African Ebola crisis.

The U.S. and China have seen tensions rise over recent years as the U.S. cracks down on Chinese espionage and intellectual property theft amid an ongoing trade war, making it harder for U.S. officials to get complete information about the public health crisis.

While there are always channels available to communicate with China, it’s not always clear Chinese officials will make use of them or pick up the phone, said one national security official. The Communist Party and the broader bureaucracy are concerned about reporting bad news to President Xi Jinping, and also the disease’s potential impact on the global economy.

The situation with China “certainly makes it harder, I think more necessary and harder,” to get solid intelligence, said Greg Treverton, a professor at the University of Southern California and a former chairman of the National Intelligence Council, in an interview with Yahoo News.

Treverton, who has written extensively about transnational threats, recalled the government’s internal response to both the SARS epidemic in 2003, another instance of the coronavirus in China, as well as the gargantuan effort around responding to the West African Ebola epidemic between 2014 and 2016. He told Yahoo News that the intelligence community invested heavily in anticipatory tracking to follow Ebola’s path in Africa before cases surfaced in the U.S. and the issue became more domestic.

“These are existential, serious issues,” continued Treverton. “Health is an enormous national security issue, particularly when the intelligence target” — i.e., China — “is not as helpful as it should be.”

由于中共严密封锁病毒信息,国际社会对中国不愿接受国际援助感到失望之际,美国情报部门介入了此事。到目前为止,由于中共以缺乏时间和资源为借口,使得国际世界卫生组织,包括美国专家进入武汉实地获取数据的计划一拖再拖,至今未能实现。然而,世界卫生组织对中国的做法却表示赞赏,它们在一份声明中说:“自疫情爆发之初,中国就以透明的方式共享数据。” 这个从中国获得资金的组织在这次疫情中对中共的态度备受批评。

瘟疫本来是需要全人类共同应对的灾难,但“由于病毒发源地的中国不提供数据,不得不导致从事间谍活动的情报系统介入。” 据知情人士透露,目前有关冠状病毒以及中国政府应对措施的最准确信息是通过军事渠道获得的。

有消息透露,在美国,国家情报总监办公室、中情局的全球事务任务中心和国防情报局的国家医疗情报中心一直在支持白宫的冠状病毒特别工作组。该工作组由美国卫生与公众服务部和美国疾病控制与预防中心领导。美国国家医疗情报中心负责追踪疾病爆发和对美国军方的潜在威胁,以及外国领导人应对流行病或其他相关袭击的准备情况。

目前正在追查的最重要问题是中国领导层打算采取的措施,即在一场前所未有的危机(如核战争或自然灾害)中,政府维持基本功能的能力。

消息人士称,从追查到的信息看,不排除有中共高级领导人离开中国寻求庇护的可能性,“就像美国的末日地堡”。网络追踪到中国官员正在制定此类应急计划的一些迹象,显示出中共高层内部可能存在的斗争。

近年来,随着美国在一场持续的贸易战中打击中国的间谍活动和知识产权盗窃活动,美国和中国之间的紧张关系有所加剧,美国官员更难获得有关这场公共卫生危机的完整信息。

一位国家安全官员表示,尽管一直存在着与中国的沟通渠道,但我们并不清楚中国官员会不会利用这些渠道或电话沟通。南加州大学教授、美国国家情报委员会前主席格雷格·特雷弗顿(Greg Treverton)表示,中国的情况“肯定会让获取可靠情报变得更困难”。

“健康是关系到国家安全的大问题,特别是当信息在中国没有起到应该起到的作用时,获取病毒信息就成了关乎生死存亡的严肃问题,” 特雷弗顿说道。

原文链接

翻译报道:白夜

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WUHAN P4 LABORATORY – A PART OF PANDORA’S BOXBy himalaya_hawk -2020-02-20 02:0014139

https://spark.adobe.com/page/BZE1B2m6XXVkI/

Source: DT @DTinLAC

Translator: TCC, ignoreme

Edited by TCC

ADAPTED FROM DTINLAC EXPOSE

This is an adapted version of DTinLAC Expose about the controversial Wuhan P4 Laboratory and its relationship to the CCP and the outbreak of COVID-19 (or previously called nCOV-19).

The National Biosafety Laboratory, Wuhan (NBL) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), referred to as Wuhan P4 Lab or P4 Lab, is located at Zhengdian Science Park of the Wuhan Institute of Virology, Jiangxia District, Wuhan City, Hubei Province. This P4 Lab, a collaboration between Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wuhan municipal government, was completed on January 31, 2015 and officially began its operation on January 5, 2018. It is China’s first the biosafety level 4 laboratory (BSL-4 Lab) and the third one in Asia (DT-L2)

Here the content will be divided into the following sections:

The history of Wuhan Institute of VirologyFrance China Relationship and the P4 LabFrance China FoundationThe P4 Lab: Organization Chart of Wuhan’s P4 LabLiterature HighlightsKey personsIntriguing FactsSummaryEpilogue: Evidence of connections to Jiang Family – Pandora’s Box1. History of the Wuhan Institute of Virology (WIV), Chinese Academy of Sciences: (DT-L5-11)Wuhan Institute of MicrobiologyIn 1956, the Wuhan Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences was established.In November 1961, the Wuhan Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences was renamed the Central South Institute of Microbiology.In October 1962, the Central South Institute of Microbiology was renamed to the Wuhan Institute of Microbiology.In 1966, the local branch of the Chinese Academy of Sciences was relegated to the leadership of Hubei Province.In 1970, it was renamed to the Hubei Institute of Microbiology.In 1978, before the Science and Technology Conference, it returned to the Chinese Academy of Sciences and was renamed to the Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.In 2002, it entered the sequence of the National Science and Technology Innovation Projects of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.In 2003, the “One, Three, Five” (One goal with 3 five-year) Plan was carried out.In November 2004, the establishment of the State Key Laboratory of Virology was approved by the Ministry of Science and Technology. The lab is under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Education, and supervised by both Wuhan University and Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.In January 2012, the China Virus Resource Center of the Institute was approved by China Quality Certification Center, and obtained ISO9001: 2008 quality management system certificate, ISO14001: 2004 environmental management system certificate, and GB / T28001-2001 occupational health and safety management system certificate. In June, the Animal Experiment Center of Zhengdian Science Park of the Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences began operation.In 2012, Public Technical Service Center of the Wuhan Institute of Virology’s was established and consisted of an analysis and testing center, a BSL-3 laboratory, an experimental animal center, a radioisotope laboratory, and a network information center.In 2014, the first action plan of the Big Science Center was launched.In January 2015, China’s first laboratory with the highest level of biosafety protection, the Wuhan National Biosafety Laboratory (namely, Wuhan BSL-4 Laboratory) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences was completed. In December, it was rated as a civilized unit in Hubei Province.In July 2016, the Wuhan Institute of Virology held a ground-breaking ceremony for a comprehensive experimental research base of virology and biosafety.In January 2018, Wuhan National Biosafety Level 4 Laboratory (BSL-4 Laboratory) passed the national standard.2. France China Relationship and the P4 Lab

Using P4 Laboratory as the centre and under the cooperative relationship between France and China, the framework agreement proposed to synchronize the “four wheels” – scientific research cooperation, personnel training, laws, regulations, and standards, and laboratory construction- making laboratory construction affected by changes in Sino-French cooperation relations.

On June 28, 2004, Chen Zhu, then the vice president of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, clearly instructed the WIV, “based on the principles of friendly cooperation between China and France, the collaborative process should differentiate internal (China) from external (France) and use China-centered and practical approaches (DT-L97).

DT-L92, 93, 96, 98, 99:

In 1997, BioMérieux set up a representative office in Beijing, and in 2004, its Shanghai Branch was established in Asia.

BioMérieux France

On January 28, 2004, during President Hu Jintao’s visit to France, he witnessed the signing of the “Memorandum of Understanding of China-France Cooperation in Preventing and Fighting New Infectious Diseases”:

Establish a Sino-French Emerging Infectious Diseases Group composed of representatives of competent French government departments and experts;Support the development of the WIV of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, acquire equipment and technology, and provide training, and cooperate in the field of prevention and combat of emerging infectious diseases.

Construction of the P4 Lab has started since 2004!

On October 9, 2004, French President Jacques Chirac visited Beijing to officially sign a cooperative agreement on the prevention and control of emerging infectious diseases between the two countries.On November 1, 2007, French Foreign Minister Kouchner visited China and made a statement on the P4 project.On November 26, 2007, French President Nicolas Sarkozy visited China and signed a statement on a cooperative agreement on the prevention and control of emerging infectious diseases, emphasizing to “ensure that all necessary measures are taken as soon as possible to implement all projects including the Wuhan P4 laboratory.In 2008, the French side delivered a laboratory drawing, and in 2009, the Chinese Yuan Design Institute provided the Chinese design drawing. In the design process, the key concepts of Lyon Lab Design are referenced.On May 10, 2010, the China-France Cooperation Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases was held in Beijing, which further promoted the laboratory construction process.On January 9, 2012, the key equipment of the core laboratory-airtight doors and life support systems arrived at Jiangxia Zhengdian Park. The quality was checked and approved.On January 9, 2012, the key equipment of the core laboratory—airtight doors and life supporting systems—was delivered to Jiangxia Zhengdian Park and passed the quality check.On March 26, 2014, Xi Jinping visited the French Merrier Centre for Biological Research and listened to the introduction of the development of the center. Xi pointed out: “P4 laboratory construction in Wuhan is very important for Chinese public health and a good symbol of the France China Collaboration in public health. “On January 31, 2015, Wuhan P4 Lab held a completion and unveiling ceremony, which marked the completion of the laboratory’s hardware construction and installation of major facilities and equipment. According to the participating French engineers and technicians, China’s P4 laboratory is more advanced than the one in Lyon, France.On January 31, 2015, Wuhan National Biosafety Laboratory (Wuhan P4 Laboratory), the National Academy of Sciences was completed to conduct research on avian influenza, coronavirus and other virus epidemic prevention. This laboratory is the Sino-French Emerging Infectious Diseases Cooperative Project of the Mérieux Foundation. President Alain Mérieux, listed in the Key Person Section, is also Chairman of the Mérieux Foundation.January 31, 2015 China builds first P4 laboratory

Wuhan P4 virus laboratory involves people, time, events, documents, companies, institutions, speeches

One step combing, you can get the initial true face of the hidden P4 laboratory!

Just look at the big people involved:

Yu Zhengsheng(Chairman of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference from 2013 to 2018)Hu Jintao(President of the People’s Republic of China from 2003 to 2013 and Chairman of the Central Military Commission from 2004 to 2012)Jacques Chirac (Former French President, 1995-2007)Kouchner (Bernard Kouchner, co-founded French doctors-without-border, the Minister of Foreign and European Affairs under President Sarkozy)Nicolas Sarkozy (Former French President, 2007-2012)Xi Jinping (President of the People’s Republic of China, and Chairman of the Central Military Commission)3. The France China Foundation (DT-L87, 88, 84)

The France China Foundation is a spy agency! !! !! The state officials in charge of France China Foundation are the Chinese People’s Institute of Foreign Affairs! !!

In October 2017, French President Macron received members of the “Young Leaders” project at the Elysee Palace. Macron! !! !! !!

On January 09, 2018, the CCP propaganda news media, China Daily: The France China Foundation and “Youth Leadership Project”: the current French President was also seen.

The France China Foundation:(DT-L85-88) Members:

Hua Bin (Chairman)- Wang Jian??Alibaba:Ma Yun (Jack Ma)Tencent:Ma HuatengBaidu:Zhang YaqinNetEase:Ding LeiSina Corp:Wang YanCelebrity:Hong Huang (DT-L115+Mischa)-Zhang HanZi’s DaughterArchitect:Wang ShuThe daughter of Macau King of Gamblers, Pansy Catalina Ho Chiu-king (DT-L89-90)Zhang Xin, President of SOHO China (DT-L107)China Everbright CEO Chen Shuang (DT-L108-109)L’Oreal President Jean-Paul AngonEconomist Jacques AtariKering Group Vice Chairman Patricia Barbizer, (DT-L110)Former French President FabiusFrench director Jean-Jacques Arnold and others

Alain Mérieux (DT-L84, 91)

Born in Lyon, France in 1938, Alain Mérieux is one representative compromised under the CCP’s ‘Blue, Golden, and Yellow” strategies.

Dr. Alain Mérieux, President of the Mérieux FoundationThe most shocking thing is that Alain Merieux is introduced on the website of “France China Foundation”!original news on 21.12.2018 people.cn

Read the original news in Chinese

Graduated from the Lyon Medical School, Alain is the chairman of the French Merrier Foundation, and President of French BioMérieux Group, Alain founded the bio-Mérieux company, a subsidiary of the Mérieux Institute with an annual sale of USD$ 1.9 billion. It provides the diagnosis of infectious diseases such as AIDS and tuberculosis.

That’s the one who helped the CCP to establish the P4 virus laboratory in Wuhan! Everyone remember this person! !! Alain Merieux ! (Figure legend: Before the establishment of diplomatic tie between the CCP and France, Alain’s father-in-law was keen to promote the car industry between 2 nations and received appraisal from the older generation of leaders like Zhou EnLai and Deng Xiaoping etc.,….. At 50th year celebration of China-France Tie, Alain was the chairman of the organizers.)

He collaborates with China on SARS and avian influenza virus control. The Mérieux Biology Research Center cooperates with China in the areas of tuberculosis prevention, infection control, and prevention and control of emerging infectious diseases.

With his connections, both nations worked collaboratively to establish a production and R & D base in Shanghai and a P4 high-level biosafety laboratory in Wuhan.

4. The P4 Lab: Organization Chart of Wuhan’s P4 Lab

It is a virus making aircraft carrier! !! !!

A. Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences. (DT-L30)

B. Emerging Infectious Diseases Research Center- Organization Chart (DT-L31)

C. Staffing (DT-L3-4)

According to the official website of the Institute in December 2016, the Institute had a total of 266 employees, including 189 scientific research positions, and 81% of them were doctorates and masters. The Chinese Academy of Sciences has selected 15 people for the ‘100 Talents’ Program, 5 winners of the National Outstanding Youth Fund, and 3 candidates for the first and second levels of the National “Cross-Century Multi-Million Project”.

Here is the list of 15 scientists selected for the ‘Hundred Talents’ Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences: Guan Wuxiang, Yang Rongge, Li Chaoyang, Xiao Gengfu, Zhang Bo, Chen Xulin, Chen Xinwen, Luo Minhua, Zhou Ningyi, Hu Zhihong, Hu Qinxue, Tang Hong, Gong Peng, Cui Jie, Peng Ke

Winners of National Outstanding Youth Fund: Wang Hualin, Hu Zhihong, Tang Hong, Wang Yanyi (!!!), Chen Xinwen (Director of WIV, 2008.08-2018.11)

National candidates for ” Cross-Century Multi-Million Project”: Wang Yanyi (Please also see DT-P1-37. Amazing!), Tang Hong.

DT-L42:

Check out the resumes of these researchers at WIV! !! !!

They were all from the Thousand Talents Program! !! !! !!

Among the 38 researchers, there were 34 PhD, 2 MSc, 2 BSc; 35 had connections with foreign countries, including USA (15), France, Denmark, Japan, Australia, Singapore, Netherland, and UK etc. There were 6 from Wageninen University Netherland. Two were from School of Information and 2 from Hundred Talents Plan, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

D. The highlights of independence and innovation of Wuhan P4 virus laboratory (DT-L100)The envelope structure of the laboratoryThe light steel keel structureFire extinguishing equipmentThe automatic control system

The working unit control interface provided by Siemens was designed by Tong Xiao, Deputy director of the project office.

On June 16, 2016, on behalf of the French President, Gu Shan, French Ambassador to China, awarded Researcher Yuan Zhiming and Deputy Director Shi Zhengli, Director of the P4 Laboratory of Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, with “Knight Medal” and “French Palm Education Knight Medal of Honor”, respectively.

E. Resources (DT-2):

The Center for the Biobank of Pathogenic Microbial Species of the Wuhan Institute of Virology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences was founded in 1979. Currently, it has stored more than 1,500 species of various viruses, with 117,000 isolates of various virus resources. The banked resources include human medical viruses, zoonotic viruses, animal viruses, insect viruses, plant viruses, phages, environmental microorganisms, virus-sensitive cell banks, and virus genetic data banks etc., play an important role in scientific and technological support role in the fields of national security, life science research, public health and virology.

P4 Laboratory Virus Resource Database and Species (DT-L18-28)

The data came from an internal 328-page file of Wuhan Virus Laboratory. DT extracted some relevant pathogens and viral strains listed here.

5. Literature Highlights

A. Bats are natural reservoirs of SARS-like coronaviruses, published in Science(DT-L40)

Science. 310 (5748):676-679, 2005(Oct)

Wendong Li1,2, Zhengli Shi2,*, Meng Yu3, Wuze Ren2, Craig Smith4, Jonathan H. Epstein5, Hanzhong Wang2, Gary Crameri3,Zhihong Hu2, Huajun Zhang2, Jianhong Zhang2, Jennifer McEachern3, Hume Field4, Peter Daszak5, Bryan T. Eaton3,Shuyi Zhang1,6,*, Lin-Fa Wang3,*

B. Isolation and characterization of a bat SARS-like coronavirus that uses the ACE2 receptor (DT-L81)

Nature volume 503, pages535–538(2013)

In 2013, WIV isolated a SARS-like CoV that is highly homologous to the SARS virus. WIV further confirmed that the Chinese chrysanthemum bat is the source of the SARS virus. This result was published in the internationally renowned academic journal, Nature.

With this publication, the Wuhan Institute of Virology’s Emerging Infectious Disease Research Center has gathered a large number of talents. then:

C. Book

SARS, its non-nature origin and human-to-human new virus genetic bioweapon

Author: Xu DeZhong, Li Feng. Both of them are senior researchers of the PLA!

This is a book published by Military Medical Press on August 14, 2015. The authors are Xu Dezhong and Li Feng.

The reasons for the emergence of genetic weapon-type new infectious diseases; what are biological weapons; biomolecular evolution and phylogeny; contemporary genetic (human-made new species pathogens and pathogenic genes) weapons and their deployment; and no SARS coronavirus in nature and among human and its reason etc.

D. CCP State Defense News: Let Biological Warfare Come into National Defense (2020/01/25)

E. Virologica Sinica (DT-L74)

SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV are highly pathogenic and can cause severe acute respiratory syndrome in human with high mortality rates. The virus is thought to originate in bats.

The S proteins of different coronaviruses show different efficiencies in mediating pseudoviral infections and this includes the coronavirus genome, which is the largest genome of RNA viruses, consists of a sense, single-stranded RNA, about 30 kb in size.

Introduction of the journal and editor-in-chief

Editor in chief Chen Xinwen (2002- 2017); Shi Zhengli, Since 2017 Shi Zhengli

Special issue: Coronavirus and their hosts, 2016 Vol. 31(1)

Coronaviruses (CoVs) infect a wide range of vertebrates, including humans. They can cause respiratory, gastrointestinal, hepatic and central nervous system diseases. Some CoVs have managed to across the species barrier, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV. This special issue of Virologica Sinica is dedicated to the recent progress on coronaviruses and covers topics on viral epidemiology, virus replication and the interactions between the coronaviruses and their hosts. This updated information would provide new insights in the control of CoV infections, and in the development of effective antivirals. The cover depicts the modes of transmission of coronavirus from animals to humans.

6. Key Persons:

A. Wang Yanyi (or Wang Yantie) – DT-L14-15, DT-P1-37

The director of the P4 laboratory (2018.11- present)

Wang Yanyi, Gao Yanyan, Wang Qishan and his illegitimate daughters

Wang Yanyi (1981-), a biologist of the People’s Republic of China, is currently a researcher and Director of the Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, a member of the Wuhan City’s Chinese People’s Political Consultative Committee, and a deputy chairman of the Wuhan Municipal Committee of the China Zhi Gong Party.

She received a bachelor in Biological Sciences, School of Life Sciences, Peking University; a master of Immunology, Department of Immunology, University of Colorado School of Medicine; and PhD in Microbiology, School of Life Sciences, Wuhan University.

B. Shi Zhengli – DT-L39

Researcher Shi Zhengli

Emerging Infectious Diseases Research Center ~ Researcher Shi Zhengli’s research project. . .

I was shocked! !! !! !!

Please note that the research projects were listed only till 2011!

C. Guo Deyin (DT-L43-49 and 60)

Who is Guo Deyin? Guo Deyin, born in April 1965 in Xiayi County, Henan Province. He was a winner of the National Outstanding Youth Fund; the leading scientist of the National “973” major scientific research project; and a backbone member of the National Research Foundation’s innovation research group. He is currently the Dean, Professor and PhD Supervisor of School of Medicine, Sun Yat-Sen University and the Chairman of the Virology Committee of the Chinese Microbiology Society,

Guo Deyin

Guo Deyin is the head of the innovation team in the key areas of the National Innovation Talent Promotion Program. Subjects: microbiology / virology, pathogenic biology, molecular biology. He used to be the Dean of the School of Basic Medical Sciences of Wuhan University, the Deputy Dean of the School of Life Sciences of Wuhan University, a Professor of the School of Life Sciences of Wuhan University, the Deputy Director of the State Key Laboratory of Virology, and the head of the Modern Virology Research Center of Wuhan University.

In June, 2001, Guo Deyin was promoted to an associate professor in the Department of Biology of the University of Helsinki. Since September 2002, he has been a distinguished professor of the Department of Virology of the School of Life Sciences of Wuhan University and Dean of the School of Basic Medical Sciences. From 2016 to 2020, he is appointed Dean of the School of Basic Medical Sciencese, Sun Yat-Sen University, Shenzhen and research focus is the molecular mechanisms of genome replication of RNA viruses (coronavirus and hepatitis C virus) and their interaction with host cells.

Guo Deyin is in charge of National 973 Program! !! !! A coronavirus research project! !! !! This project is collaborated with Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences !!! (To be continued !!!)

Resume of Guo Deyin:

2011-present Professor and Dean of School of Basic Medicine, Wuhan University; PI and Deputy Dean of Medical Research Institute2002-present Professor of School of Life Sciences of Wuhan University, Executive Director of Modern Virology Research Center, Deputy Dean (2004-2011)1996-2002 Postdoc, Institute of Biotechnology, University of Helsinki, Finland, Department of Biological Science, Teacher (2001)1991-1995 Ph.D. student, Department of Biology, Brunswick University of Technology, Germany, Federal Graduate Research Assistant in Biochemistry and Plant Viruses1990-1991 German language study at Tongji University, Preparatory Department (for German Studies) 1985-1988 Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences Master Degree 2016-2020 Dean, School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University.

Guo Deyin’s mobile phone number 1329660 **** WeChat, see pictures! The self-description of this bandit’s WeChat is actually ‘Being indifferent, I can clear my mind; Being calm, I can walk distantly…. (what a hypocrite!)

D. Tero Ahola

Guo Deyin signed a contract with Lecturer Tero Ahola of the Institute of Biological Viruses, University of Helsinki in 2014. Guo Deyin gave this professor 30 million Euros each year! !! !! Tero Ahola is a Finnish Coronavirus expert and has been researching Coronavirus since 2003! It should be that the CCP provides funding for coronavirus research! !! !!

E. Chen Zhu (DT-L124-127, 131) :

United States Mission Geneva / CC BY

Chen Zhu, current President of Chinese Red Cross from May 6th, 2015.

He was born in Shanghai on Aug 17th, 1953, with ancestral origin from Zhenjiang, Jiangsu Province.He is a hematologist and a molecular biologist. He received a master degree of hematology from the first department of medical school, the Second Medical University in Shanghai and Ph.D. in tumor pathogenesis from the Institute of Hematology, Paris Diderot University (Paris VII).Professor, Member of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Foreign Associates of the (US) National Academy of Sciences Foreign Associate of French Academy of SciencesProfessor of Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Lifetime professor of Shanghai Jiaotong University-affiliated Ruijin Hospital;The last Minister of Ministry of Public Health of China.Vice Chairman of the National People’s Congress Standing Committee, Chairman of Chinese Peasants and Workers Democratic Party Central Committee, Chairman of the Chinese Overseas-educated Scholars Association;President of Chinese Red Cross, Vice President of International Federation of Red Cross and red crescent societies.

Some of his major projects what Chen Zhu was responsible for:

Wuhan Institute of Virology P4 Lab, Chinese Academy of SciencesInstitute Pasteur of Shanghai, Chinese Academy of SciencesGuangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences (possessing more than 200 experimental monkeys)Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of SciencesShanghai Biomedical Technology Industrial Base (ZhangJiang Pharma Valley)Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of SciencesKunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ABSL-3 laboratory, GLP-Good Laboratory Practice Drug Research Lab, and Primates Center where owns the largest number of experimental monkeys in the world for drug experiment) .

It is clear that the core of the whole arrangement is Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences and Shanghai Biomedical Technology Industrial Base (Zhang Jiang Pharma valley).

Shanghai releases plan to develop bio-medicine sector: report

There is a strong relationship between Jiang Mianheng, Chen Zhu and Wuhan Institute of Virology.

Jiang Mianheng control the institute and has tight connection with the institute.

Chen Zhu is in charge of projects related with Wuhan Institute of Virology

7. Intriguing Facts

A. First ‘official’ announcement from the WIV? Please watch the timing.

An internal E-mail sent by Wang Yanyi was exposed on Jan 2nd 2020.

Wang Yanyi asked all employees of the institute not to disclose any information about the Coronavirus.

Now the virus has begun to wreak havoc on China. These bunch of bastards still lie everyday。

Wuhan even held a dinner party with 40 thousand participants on Jan 21.

DT-L94:

CCTV “24 Hours” on April 5, 2018: Scientists from WIV discover a New Coronavirus

November 2019: Small scale plague outbreaks in Beijing and Inner Mongolia

January 2020: Outbreak of new coronavirus in Wuhan

Do you think these are independent events that have nothing to do with each other? ? !! !!

Watch the video! !! !!

8. Summary (DT-L102, 123)

Such an institute is definitely the most powerful biological virus research aircraft carrier in human history!

The key question is, would there be a virus leak on such an “aircraft carrier”? It would not. It is absolutely impossible!

The more critical question is who can lead and command this “aircraft carrier”? Who is the commander?

Is it Wang Yanyi, current director and an 80s beauty queen? Is it the famous Shi Zhengli? Or the leadership of the Chinese Academy of Sciences? Or Guo Deyin?

None of them. This is the real problem.

A killer virus strain that can limitlessly multiply is stored here and a group of top scientists using the name of benefiting human beings are undergoing scientific research.

They will not be able to enjoy their research results. What do they want to do with it?

This is a problem for the whole human beings …

Questions left now are:

Who is the actual ruler of Wuhan Institute of Virology?Who made of the virus?Who released the virus from the Lab?

P4 Lab 95:

What did Shi Zhengli and her WIV do?What did Guo Deyin do?What exactly does a P4 lab do?Who is directing this? Who is the leader? Who should be accountable for it?When the P4 laboratory is holding tens of thousands of viral strains, what does this mean to the Chinese people?Is this what Pandora’s box called by Wang Yi?Epilogue: How the P4 Lab Connect to the Jiang Family and the Nan Putou Plan (the Shipwreck Plan) (DT-L117-119)

Please see the Spider Web, DT prepared for the complexity of the institutes and persons in DT-L117 (the center green is the Wuhan P4 Lab) and the logic map (DT-L118). DT thinks the P4 Lab is one of things in Pandora’s box.

DT: I remember that Mr. Miles Guo has said when you hear the voice of Jiang Zemin in our Expose, Pandora’s Box will be open. Now we haven’t heard the voice of Jiang Zemin, however, the evil CCP has open the evil box themselves.

DT-P4 Lab 118:

Wuhan P4 Laboratory:

Chinese Academy of Sciences:Jiang Mianheng-Jiang ZeminThe France China Foundation: Capital: Jack Ma (Ma Yun), Pony Ma (Ma Huateng), Baidu, Tencent, NetEase, Hong Huang, French President. Underworld gangsters: Stanley Ho and Pansy Catalina Ho Chiu-kingDirector of Wuhan Institute of Virology: Wang Yanyi (Wang Qishang)Chinese Medical data: WuXi AppTec Jiang Zhicheng!Hu Jintao and Xi Jinping only help the Jiangs to complete this task!

DT-P4 Lab 121-122, 130:

Pandora’s Box and members

Founder and Designer of Pandora’s box: Jiang ZeminCEO of Pandora’s box: Jiang MianhengFirst footman of Pandora’s box: Hu JintaoSecond footman of Pandora’s box: Xi JinpingBackstage manipulator of Pandora’s box: Wang Qishan

From the time when Deng Xiaoping appoint Jiang Zemin as the Chairman of the Military Commission, Jiang Zemin gave instructions to design and implement the extinction plan which is a part of Shipwreck plan.

This is the reason after Hu Jintao took the office, Jiang Zemin remained to operate behind the scene for 8 years. Even in 2012, Jiang summoned a meeting with all previous and current members of the standing committee in Nan Putuo to continue executing the Shipwreck plan.

Shipwreck plan is a huge plan to arrange the retreat of the CCP. Jiang Zemin started to implementing after he served as Chairman of the Military Commission. This Pandora’s Box is only one part of the Shipwreck plan.

Project members of upgraded Pandora’s Box (DT-L130)

Lu Yongxiang: Former President, Chinese Academy of Sciences.Chen Zhu: President of Chinese Red CrossBai Chunli: Present president of Chinese Academy of Sciences.Wang Enge: President of Beijing UniversityIn summary: (DT-L128 and 129)

Wuhan Institute of Virology is one huge and significant project of state-level (or national) strategies. People from various fields involved and the amount of investment funds are unprecedent. The actual manipulator and leader are definitely not those small potato’s like Shi Zhengli or Wang Yanyi; The virus is never ‘leaked’ from the Lab. There must be a great strategy and a shocking secret behind this.

Wang Qishan serve as Secretary of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection after Hu Jintao stepped down in 2013. We can say Jiang Mianheng and Wang Qishan are absolutely the big bosses and key persons of Wuhan’s P4 Laboratory.

Based on the analysis, we can confirm that Jiang Zemin maintained an iron grip over Chinese Academy of Sciences from 1999-2019. Does he continue to take control the politics of China? You can do your own analysis here.

https://threadreaderapp.com/thread/1226058147904860160.html (German version)

Twitter Link: P4Lab, Feb 7, 2020

Twitter Link: Prologue, Feb 11-16, 2020

Edited by:【Himalaya Hawk Squad】

回复 | 1
作者:Pascal 回复 天雅 留言时间:2020-02-23 00:39:19

是,汇编太多了,还有很多没有收编进去。

回复 | 1
作者:天雅 留言时间:2020-02-22 22:32:12
哇好多信息啊。
回复 | 1
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