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黑格尔对诡辩术情有独钟
   

尽管黑格尔的辩证法在运用中经常会产生诡辩的效果因而被很多人看作是等同于诡辩术这一点应该不是黑格尔所故意造成的,黑格尔的哲学中最大的遗憾却实实在在地是他对诡辩术确实情有独钟。

在西方哲学史上黑格尔是第一个公开出来为诡辩术唱赞歌的。他在《哲学史讲义》中说:“希腊应该为这个(诡辩)文化感谢诡辩术师,因为是他们教导人们如何具有权威性地运用思考,因此他们的文化对于哲学来说就如同对于如何流畅地表达一样(Greece has to thank the Sophists for this culture, because they taught men to exercise thought as to what should have authority for them, and thus their culture was culture in philosophy as much as in eloquence.)”在他的《历史哲学讲义》中,他更是作进一步讴歌诡辩术师:“正是诡辩术师 –‘智慧之师‘智慧之师’ 首先引入主观反思以及教导人们应该按照自己的意愿行事的教义。一旦反思发挥效用,真正的探索才得以开始,不论作为法则的原则是否能得到改进(It was the Sophists — the “Teachers of Wisdom” — who first introduced subjective reflection, and the new doctrine that each man should act according to his own conviction. When reflection once comes into play, the inquiry is started whether the Principles of Law (das Recht) cannot be improved.)”

他而且是明知故犯,也就是说他明知诡辩术的负面性,仍然推崇诡辩术。他说(《哲学史讲义》):“诡辩术当然是个恶名昭彰的词,实际上,特别是通过与苏格拉底和柏拉图的对立,诡辩术师们已经声名狼藉,这个词现在通常表明,通过错误的推理,使得真理被驳回或被质疑,或者某些错误被证明是合理的。 我们必须把这一邪恶的意义放在一边,而忘记它。 另一方面,我们现在希望从积极和适当的科学角度进一步考虑诡辩术师们在希腊具有什么样的地位。(Sophistry is certainly a word of ill-repute, and indeed it is particularly through the opposition to Socrates and Plato that the Sophists have come into such disrepute that the word usually now signifies that, by false reasoning, some truth is either refuted and made dubious, or something false is proved and made plausible. We have to put this evil significance on one side and to forget it. On the other hand, we now wish to consider further from the positive and properly speaking scientific side, what was the position of the Sophists in Greece.)”

黑格尔对于诡辩术的歌功颂德对于后现代文化中有人将诡辩术发展为极端的相对主义的影响恐怕不容忽略。

确实,如黑格尔分析的那样,诡辩术师们当初的活动有其合理的部分,对于人类哲学的发展做出过一些积极的贡献。但是,诡辩术师们对真理价值的践踏是不能因为他们在其它方面的贡献而被接受的。正如一句名言所道,“有功给赏,有能给官”。黑格尔也知道古希腊的诡辩术师们都过着奢华的生活,因此不论他们对哲学曾经有过什么样的贡献他们都已享受了社会对他们的回报;而他们对于真理的藐视甚至玩弄给当时社会以及后世的负面影响却是难以估量的。因此,人类社会完全没有必要而且也决不应该因为诡辩术曾经做出的贡献而接受诡辩对于社会实践的负面影响。

另一方面,后现代的相对主义也具有其合理的成分。但是,其相对主义中的诡辩的成分恰是后现代主义中最消极最不可取的部分。所以,消除黑格尔对诡辩的讴歌带来的负面影响恐怕是当今的哲学界需要面对的又一个挑战。。。。。。


 
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