针灸和按摩是两种有助于缓解症状和保持健康的方法。经络学说和子午流注学说（zǐwǔ liú zhù）是中医的两个重要基础。通过物理学实验将穴位用数学坐标表达可以清楚的看出穴位的内部情况，了解穴位的特性。
Theoretical Discussion on Human Life Activity ：
Discussions on Acupuncture and Traditional Chinese Medical Theory
Human health development cannot manage without the assurance of medicine. Acupuncture and massage are two methods that help alleviate symptoms and maintain health. Meridian (Jing-Luo) and Midnight-noon and ebb-flow doctrine (zǐwǔ liú zhù) are two important foundations of Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).
In this article, the main experimental point is the lowest electric resistance point under the skin. Many lowest electric resistance points under the human skin are like a spatial net covering the human body. Through this report, we can understand how to determine the best position in the acupuncture point area, why acupuncture on the left acupoint of the human body can relieve the symptoms of the right part, and why acupuncture on the acupoint of the human's foot can relieve the symptoms of the toothache and sore throat, as well as show the relationship between the stimuli and the inside of the human body.
The circulation in the body is the basis of acupuncture in TCM. For the Meridian channel to circulate in the body, it must pass through the articulations. Will the articulations that connect the body's limbs affect acupuncture and Meridian channels? We must consider whether or not the articulations of the limbs hinder the circulation of our bodies. The morpho of the articular surface that connects human limbs (such as elbows, knees, buttocks, etc.) is different from the synovial joints in the anatomy.
According to Midnight-noon and ebb-flow doctrine, this article uses mathematics to express the connotation of Midnight-noon and ebb-flow doctrine with the prosperous angle and the degree of prosperity as indicators. This can be used as a reference for clinical treatment and nursing.
The lowest electric resistance point under the skin is related to the internal rhythm of the human body. If we correctly implement the internal rhythm of the human body, it will gain the benefit of self-regulation. For this reason, we should fully maximize the human body’s internal capabilities to defend against external stimuli that harm the human body or use stimulation to maintain overall health.
acupuncture, Meridian point, Meridian line, morpho of the knee, prosperity angle, Inner rhythm in the human body, Midnight-noon and ebb-flow
Human health development cannot manage without the assurance of medicine. Prof. H. C. Chang (CAMS) proposed in 1959 that the Meridian is an independent system and doctrine in the human body. He laid the foundation for Meridian Science1,
2, 3. In 1963, Prof. H. C. Chang established the Institute of Meridian (Acupuncture) in the China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences. Prof. R. J. Chang (PKU) conducted systematic experimental research on the Meridian. He first proposed the lower resistance Meridian, and established a new discipline of Meridian Science4,
5. On this basis, we use the results of scientific experiments to explain acupoint, the Meridian channel (jīngmài), and the Midnight-noon and ebb-flow doctrine of TCM. Due to the influence of the universe as well as the earth rotating day and night, the inner rhythm of the human body is produced. The internal rhythms of the human body coexist with life and can affect internal organs.
To be precise, the acupoint should be a small area. This report describes the physics aspect of the lowest electric resistance point in humans, the lowest electric resistance line in humans, the lowest electric resistance space net in humans, and the mathematical expression of the Midnight-noon and ebb-flow doctrine of TCM.
The limbs of the human body are connected with articulations. Articulations are in direct contact with the surfaces of bone endings, and there is no fixed bone to connect them.
Realizing the internal rhythm of the human body and maintaining health can be achieved through the system with physics characteristics in the human body, including the lowest electric resistance space net distribution. The internal rhythm of the body is directly related to health. It is of great significance to life sciences and medicine.
Acupuncture, massage, acupoint, Meridian channel (Meridian line) , Collateral, Meridian, Meridian channel circulation, Vessel, Yin, Yang, and Midnight-noon and ebb-flow doctrine are all terms in TCM. There were improper understandings of nouns in TCM in the past, as well as translation errors. For example, meridian and meridians are actually two separate nouns in Chinese. When translated into Chinese, the meridian should mean the earth's meridian, apex, pole…… The lines on the surface of the Meridian copper man do not represent longitude and latitude, and there is no longitude and latitude on the human body. In ancient times, Meridian line refers to the connection between the Meridian points related to the same internal organ and the mutual connection with the Meridian points in the body. Therefore, the translation of meridian, meridians, channel of TCM should instead be the Meridian line (Meridian channel).
The Meridian is a term. It is a singular noun with no plural form. Meridian is a system inherent in the human body. The terms Meridian(capitalized) and meridian(lowercase) describe two completely different concepts and should not be confused with each other. In this report, we use the Meridian, Meridian channel (line), and the Collateral respectively. The Collateral is one kind of Meridian channel. The Meridian channel is the line that is connected by the lowest electric resistance points under the skin at different positions in the human body. Non-English nouns in the article only appear in parentheses after English nouns.
Acupoint is the basis of acupuncture, massage, et al. The acupuncture points of the human body can be divided into three categories：
1. Acupoints on the fourteen main Meridian channels.
2. Outside the fourteen main Meridian channels, with clear locations and independent acupoints.
3. Pain points (The human body's positive feedback points)
Human acupoints are the two-way feedback points of the human body6,
The measured value in the area of human Tsusanli acupoint3,
8, 9, 10.
The experiment's subject is including healthy people of different genders (including the author) and animals such as rabbits, cats, and dogs.
1. The 4-electrode method was used to measure the subcutaneous electric resistance of the human body4,
Using the 4-electrode method to measure the subcutaneous electric resistance of human limbs and torso, it was found that the lowest electric resistance point is at the subcutaneous depth of about 2 mm. Next, all points 1cm apart from each other in horizontal and vertical directions of the human limbs and torso were measured, and the value of the electric resistance under the skin was recorded. Then, the points of the lowest resistance values were longitudinally connected into lines. In the electric resistance experiments conducted on dogs, cats, rabbits, and other animals, these subcutaneous lowest electric resistance points were also present.
2. The JS-P-1 was used to measure the subcutaneous electric resistance of the human body3,
The subcutaneous electric resistance values of humans and experimental animals (dogs, cats, and rabbits) were measured by the pulse electric method.
The relationship between the lowest electric resistance point and the acupoint area of TCM: When the acupoint is stimulated, there is no blood or gas visible. Stimulating the lowest electric resistance point of the human body can produce two-way transmissions. After comparison, it is found that the lowest electric resistance point under the skin is exactly in the acupoint area of TCM.
The relationship between the lowest electric resistance line and the main Meridian channels: Additionally, the fourteen main Meridian channels (including two Collaterals) of TCM are found consistent with the fourteen lowest electric resistance lines.
The lowest electric resistance point under the skin and surrounding points in the acupoint area: Figure 1 shows the stimulation of the human Tsusanli (Zú sānlǐ, S36, S136, 36) acupoint's lowest electric resistance point and the surrounding points. For the experiment of the lowest resistance point under the skin, please refer to references3,
4, 5, 8, 9, 10.
Observing the resistance value of the lowest electric resistance point under the skin at different times, no significant changes were found: In the acupoint area, different stimulation positions and stimulation depths have different electric resistance values and achieve different clinical treatment effects. The twelve main lowest electric resistance lines under the skin consist of the connections between the lowest resistance points under the skin. The twelve main lowest electric resistance lines are related to the body's organs. There will also be acupoints at the intersections between the lowest resistance lines that may communicate with multiple lowest electric resistance lines under the skin, which will affect multiple internal organs.
The twelve main lowest electric resistance lines have different lengths and are distributed on the left and right sides of the human body: The twelve main lowest electric resistance lines are related to the body's organs. Many of the lowest electric resistance points under the human skin are like a spatial net covering all parts of the human body, such as the head, ears, hands, and feet.
The morpho of the knee articulation surface11-15
The morpho of the human knee articulation surface: The human bone is a hard organ, and the adult has 206 pieces. We must know the influence of the connection between bone and bone on the Meridian channels. Through biomechanical experiments, we can understand the morpho of the human knee articulation surface.
The bones of the human body are connected through articulations: There are many points of the lowest electric resistance under the skin around these articulations. This leads to the question of whether or not these articulations affect the twelve main subcutaneous lowest electric resistance lines.
Materials: Human bone specimens
Method: moiré iso-high-wire optical experiment.
Result: Experiments have shown that human articulations are not ordinary hinges. Take the morpho of the knee articulation surface, for example. Figure 2 shows lines of the same height on the surface (moiré) of the knee articulation.
The spatial network of the lowest electric resistance points under the skin: According to TCM rules, the human body has twelve main Meridian channels (Regular Meridian channels / Normal Meridian channels) on each side. This means the left side has twelve, as does the right side. Although this adds up to twenty-four lines, we still refer to them as only twelve lines. The twelve main lowest electric resistance lines of the human body are individually connected by the lowest electric resistance points and correspond to the internal organs of the human body. The distribution of the twelve main human Meridian channels is that the Yin Meridian channels distribute on the inner side of the limbs, and the Yang Meridian channels distribute on the outer side of the limbs respectively. The hands and feet each have three Yin Meridian channels and three Yang Meridian channels. The lowest electric resistance points under the skin of the human body and the twelve main lowest electric resistance lines under the skin are in separate acupoints and the twelve main Meridian channels of TCM. Thus, the acupoints and lowest electric resistance points have identical characteristics. If the lowest electric resistance point under the skin of the human body is the intersection of multiple lowest electric resistance lines under the skin, it will be related to multiple internal organs in the body. Due to the existence of a spatial network of the lowest electric resistance points under the skin, we can select multiple lowest electric resistance points for treatment of symptoms in the human body, or stimulate one lowest electric resistance point to relieve symptoms in multiple parts. Therefore, we may relieve symptoms on the right side by stimulating the left part of the human body, and we may relieve symptoms in the upper half by stimulating the lower part of the human body.
The relationship between articulation and the Meridian channels: Acupuncture and massage points need to circulate in the body through the Meridian channels, and they must pass through the articulations. The human body’s acupoints include but are not limited to the Extreme shortcoming (liehchueh, LU7, P7), Weizhong (Commanding Median, Weichung, B54, 40), Hegu (Connecting the Valleys, Hoku, Li4, 4), Sea of Blood (SP10), Crossroad of Three Yins (SP6, 6), Shine to Sea (Chaohai, K16, 5), Tsusanli, etc. Many other acupoints are located close to the articulations. The hinge we see is composed of two parts; there is a gap between the two parts, and there is the lubricant in the gap. The bones of the human limbs are connected by articulation. From Figure 2, we know that the articular morpho of the human knee is neither cylindrical nor spherical; it has a unique shape. This is why the walking movements of robots or the humans with lower limb articulation replacements are different from those of normal people. Moreover, the connection between human bones is the direct contact of two bones; there is no solid fixation between them. Only if the articular does not affect the Meridian channels, the functions of the twelve main Meridian channels and Midnight-noon and ebb-flow doctrine be implemented.
The internal rhythm of the human body: The inner rhythm of the human body is influenced by the universe and the rotation of the earth16. As early as over 2,000 years ago, Midnight-noon and ebb-flow doctrine was put forward in TCM as the first doctrine of the internal rhythm of the human body. Midnight-noon and ebb-flow doctrine is based on long-term medical clinical practice, according to the influence of the external environment on internal human organs. Especially the combination of visual thinking and logical thinking, taking into account of the overall balance of the individual and the immediate situation, can effectively alleviate the disease and maintain the health of the human body.
According to Midnight-noon and Ebb-flow doctrine, the twelve main Meridian channels have different prosperous positions during day and night, with each following a specific ordered pattern. The twelve main Meridian channels correspond to the internal organs: the gallbladder, liver, lung, large intestines, stomach, spleen, heart, small intestines, bladder, kidney, pericardium (pericardial membrane pericardium), and triple burner. Therefore, the twelve main Meridian channels can also be named after the internal organs of the human body. The cycle starts from the lung Meridian channel on the hand, ending at the liver Meridian channel on the feet, then cycles back from the feet’s liver Meridian channel to end at the hands’ lung Meridian channel. This cycle is continuous throughout one’s lifespan. For every full calendar day, each Meridian channel has two hours in which it is most prosperous (P = 1). Using this law of prosperity, the human body's internal capabilities can be maximized.
The prosperity angle of the twelve main lowest electric resistance lines: Take the prosperity angle ( ꆪi°) of the twelve main lowest resistance lines as the running index of Midnight-noon and ebb-flow doctrine. The prosperity angles of the twelve main lowest electric resistance lines of the human body are connected into a circle. The beginning angle of the twelve main lowest electric resistance lines of the human body is ꆪi°. The ꆪ0° is a constant. For the Midnight-noon and ebb-flow doctrine, we can get:
ꆪi° ＝ ꆪi -1°+ 2ꆪ0° (1)
i = 1、2、3，……，12.
The prosperity interval of ꆪi° is [ꆪi°, ꆪi+1° ]. The degree of prosperity P is the ratio of the sum of the prosperous intervals in a day and night to 2 π. Sigma Notation of P:
P = ∑ [ ꆪi+1° - ꆪi ° ] / 2 π × 100 % (2)
i = 1、2、3，……
This can also be expressed in terms of time, arc length, or area.
According to Midnight-noon and ebb-flow doctrine, in formula 2; i = 1, 2, 3, …, 12 and P ≤ 1.
The prosperous angles of the lung Meridian channel and spleen Meridian channel are shown in Figure 3.
The prosperous position of the twelve main Meridian channels: According to Midnight-noon and ebb-flow doctrine, every prosperous angle of twelve main Meridian channels rotates π/6 degrees during a fixed time interval. The prosperous angles of the twelve main lowest electric resistance lines (twelve main Meridian channels) of the human body are fixed and equal (P = 1), see Table 1.
The prosperity angle is related to the internal organs. If we can correctly select the prosperity angle, it can be beneficial in caring for human health. For the theoretical research of medical physics, clinical treatment and patient care, this concept may be a valuable reference.
TABLE 1. The prosperous position of the twelve main Meridian channels.
The negative feedback of external stimuli: The human's visceral discomfort will produce positive feedback at the lowest electric resistance point or on the skin6,
7, 17. External stimuli can affect the viscera. The lowest electric resistance space net is the starting mechanism. The negative feedback relationship between external stimulation and the human body is shown in Figure 4.
The point of positive feedback may be a pain point near or away from the area of lesions.
Additionally, we can use the concept of the human body's negative feedback to maintain the overall health of the human body and improve the quality of life. To suggest movable joints，through soft tissues facilitate the dredging of the Meridian18.
TCM is an integral part of Chinese traditional culture19
- 21. TCM is based on Yellow Emperor's Internal Classic. According to experimental results, the theory of TCM can be expressed through mathematical methods. There are many lowest electric resistance points under the human skin. The experiment shows that the lowest electric resistance point under the skin is exactly in the acupoint area1-5,
8-10. Each of the fourteen main lowest electric resistance lines is connected by the lowest electric resistance points under the skin. The fourteen lowest main electric resistance lines are consistent with the fourteen main Meridian channels (including two Collaterals), proving the existence of acupoint areas and Meridian channels in TCM. Therefore, the experiments of the lowest electric resistance points of the human body may explain the acupoints and Meridian channels of TCM. These lowest electric resistance points under the skin of the human body are like a net and can thus be referred to as the lowest electric resistance spatial net. This net in the human body that connects the viscera and all parts of the body is called the Meridian21
– 24. Animals also have these subcutaneous lowest electric resistance points2,
Stimulating the lowest electric resistance point under the skin induces negative feedback, which may be beneficial in alleviating human symptoms. This can be implemented as a reference for clinicians in diagnosis and treatment. One of the fourteen main lowest electric resistance lines under the skin exists along the entirety of the human spine, which is the Governor Vessel, one of the Collaterals of TCM. There are many lowest electric resistance points under the skin near the human spine, which can reflect the condition of internal organs through positive feedback. The negative feedback can be implemented through stimulation to relieve symptoms due to the existence of the lowest electric resistance spatial net. For example, there is a Back stream acupoint (Houhsi, Si3, 3, Hòuxī) that is near the metacarpophalangeal articulation of the human fifth finger that relates to the Governor Vessel of TCM.
The prosperity angle and degree of prosperity of the twelve main lowest electric resistance lines of the human body are indicators that can help explain the Midnight-noon and ebb-flow doctrine of TCM and can contribute to practical applications as well. However, the theory of prosperous positions of the twelve main lowest resistance lines does not rule out the possibility of prosperous positions overlapping.
Stimulation on the positive feedback point may achieve a therapeutic effect. Whether using needle stimulation, electrical stimulation, or magnetic stimulation, the acupoint should be decided upon first. Then the lowest electric resistance point within the acupoint should be chosen. This is a scientific revelation in the improvement of treatment effect for most patients.
Human function and changes in pathological conditions are affected by nature. According to this rule, each Meridian channel has a position in which it is most prosperous. Choosing a specific position to treat a disease may lead to better results. The differences in individual symptoms, location of stimulation points, stimulation depth, time, frequency, and personal health may cause varied results. A characteristic of TCM is that it does not affect the overall balance of the human body.
Based on the discussion of Human Health Development in California, Renxiang Zhang wrote the original manuscript. Evelyn Xing reviewed and edited. Sophie Xing did the proofreading. Faye Zhang conducted the final review. Yin Xinru prepared and provided information. Faye Zhang, Sophie Xing, and Ryan Huang were responsible for the figures and table of the text. (The above personnel comes from different regions and units in multiple countries.)
Thanks to Prof. Ren-ji Chang College of Life Sciences of PKU for his help.
Traditional Chinese medicine
China Academy of Medical Sciences
Electric pulse measuring instrument
Chinese Traditional Culture Study Group
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