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阿联酋拉斯海马阿尔马塔夫遗址出土明永乐时期龙泉青瓷和景德镇御窑青花瓷器 2019-12-13 19:12:29




阿联酋拉斯海马阿尔马塔夫遗址出土明永乐时期龙泉青瓷和景德镇御窑青花瓷器

From: 故宫考古                                                                                                                    故宫考古                                                                                    1 week              

Ming dated imperial blue and white porcelain and celadon finds from the excavation in Ras al-Khaimah, UAE


拉斯海马酋长国位于阿联酋最北边、东邻阿曼,隔海与伊朗霍尔木兹各岛相望,紧扼霍尔木兹海峡,波斯湾南岸出海口要地,处于东西方海上要道的重要节点部位,又是波斯湾、两河腹地进入印度洋的咽喉所在。在阿拉伯文献中,伊本白图泰记载了该国阿尔马塔夫港口作为当地采珠地和珍珠贸易集散地的重要地位,十五世纪以后葡萄牙人、英国人相继攻占该地并作为据点,都说明以阿尔马塔夫为中心的拉斯海马国所处锁钥地位。


Ras al-Khaimah is located in the furthest northern area in the UAE and the west of Oman. Across the Arabian Gulf, it is just beside the south of the Hormuz Island and as a peninsula it is pointed out to the Hormuz Strait. In Arabic accounts, such as described by Ibn Battuta,al-Mataf (in Ras al-Khaimah) as a port city played a crucial role in the Pearl fishing industries and maritime trade in the ancient period. From the Portuguese to the British invasions since the 15th century, it had all well demonstrated that al-Mataf and Ras al-Khaimah were a very strategic and geographic important place in the Indian Ocean.


历年的考古发现表明,阿尔马塔夫遗址作为波斯湾南岸港口和贸易集散地的兴盛时代约当中国宋元明时期。其兴衰变迁的原因主要和当地海岸线的变化有关。从1977年开始至2015年,在拉斯海马酋长国的库什遗址、阿尔马塔夫遗址等地的考古发掘出土了大量唐宋元明时期的中国瓷器,故宫博物院遂与英国杜伦大学和拉斯海马酋长国古物与博物馆部联合开展对当地历年出土中国瓷器的合作研究,并于20191月对阿尔努杜德遗址进行联合考古发掘。


Based on archaeological evidence, al-Mataf became an important port city of maritime trade in the Arabian Gulf in the erafrom the Song to Yuan and Ming dynasties. The changing locations of trading centers in Ras al-Khaimah were mainly because of the shifts of littoral lines.From 1977 to 2015, large quantities of Chinese trade ceramics were yielded from the local sites, including Kush, al-Mataf and so forth. A three-party collaboration between the Palace Museum, the University of Durham, UK, and the Department of Antiquities and Museum, Ras al-Khaimah, focuses on the research of archaeological ceramic finds from these sites. In January 2019, an excavation was carried out by the three parties in al-Nudud of Julfar.

 

201911月,拉斯海马酋长国古物与博物馆部、英国杜伦大学、吉林大学与故宫博物院组成联合考古队,对阿尔马塔夫遗址北区、南区进行全面调查并在南区和北区的核心区域进行发掘。经十天的考古发掘,除发现了由墙基、贮藏间、厨房、院落构成的建筑区外,出土和采集了大量来自当地和伊朗、欧洲、东方的文物,表明该遗址在当时国际贸易的繁盛。其中来自中国明代永乐时期景德镇御窑烧造的青花瓷器和龙泉枫洞岩窑生产的官式青瓷标本尤其引人注目。


Since November 2019, a joint team,including the archaeologists from the Department of Antiquities and Museums of Ras al-Khaimah, the University of Durham, Jilin University and the Palace Museum, has been working at the north and south core areas of al-Mataf by surface survey and excavations. In the past ten days, not only did the architectural remains including walls, storages, kitchens and yards are excavated, but also large quantities of Islamic, European and Far Eastern potteries are collected. This shows that this site experienced a prosperous period of global trade in ancient times. Among the finds, the Yongle reign A.D.14031424dated imperialtype Jingdezhen blue and white porcelain and celadon sherds from Longquan Fengdongyan kiln site are most highlighted.

 

景德镇御窑烧造的青花瓷片仅发现两片:一片为采集品(图1),一片为北区考古发掘品MN0201001(图2)。从残片的造型、纹样看,应该和故宫博物藏品中清宫旧藏的永乐青花折沿葡萄纹大盘(图3)相同。


By now only two Jingdezhen blue and white porcelain sherds are yielded from the site, including one piece from the surface collection, and another one numbered MNIV0202-001 from the north trench(Figure 2). According to the shape and pattern, these sherds share the similar features to a Yongle dated blue and white porcelain dish with an ex-turned rimand floral grape pattern (Figure 3).


阿尔马塔夫遗址南区采集出土明永乐青花瓷

阿尔马塔夫遗址南区出土明永乐青花瓷

故宫博物院藏明永乐官窑青花瓷


1  明早中期青花瓷青花料的时代特征


通过现场的化验分析可知阿尔马塔夫出土永乐青花瓷的青花钴料具有高铁低锰型元素特征(表1),符合永乐青花钴料的元素组成特点,且其铷、锶和锆的含量与明永乐官窑青花瓷也基本吻合;双重证据表明这两片永乐青花瓷片应为明永时期乐时期景德镇御窑的产品。


By the portable X-Ray fluorescence spectrometer analysis, the Yongle reign dated blue and white porcelain sherds from al-Mataf have the cobalt pigment with high Feand low Mn (Table 1), which is similar to the typical Yongle reign dated imperial porcelain. Otherwise, the inclusion of Rb, Sr and Zr from these two sherds are also the same as the collections housed in the Forbidden City. Both archaeological and scientific evidence shows that these sherds from al-Matafcan be identified as the Yongle reign dated imperial blue and white porcelain manufactured in Jingdezhen.

在阿尔马塔夫出土和采集到高质量的龙泉青瓷片约十余片(图4),其胎釉质感、釉色和故宫博物藏品中清宫旧藏的永乐龙泉青瓷、浙江龙泉枫洞岩窑址出土该时期的青瓷相同。其中,阿尔马塔夫北区采集一片瓷片(图5)上的暗折枝桃纹和故宫博物藏品中清宫旧藏的永乐折枝桃纹梅瓶、折枝桃纹(图6)完全相同。


In terms of celadon sherds collected from the site of al-Mataf (figure 4), they are also shared the similar body andglaze features to the Yongle reign dated imperial Longquan celadon housed inthe Forbidden City and the sherds excavated from the Fengdongyan sites of Dayaosite in Longquan kilns of Zhejiang Province. The impressed floral peach patternon the sherd from the survey collections in al-Mataf (Figure 5) is the same as the decoration of the Palace Museum collection (Figure 6).


图4 阿联酋阿尔马塔夫遗址北区采集青瓷标本

   

图5 阿联酋阿尔马塔夫遗址北区采集青瓷

              

图6 故宫博物院藏明永乐青瓷    


表2  阿尔马塔夫出土青瓷和枫洞岩窑址青瓷釉的化学组成


同时,经故宫文保科技部的同事现场化验,并对比阿尔马塔夫遗址出土、采集的龙泉青瓷中认定的官样龙泉青瓷和浙江省龙泉南区枫洞岩窑址出土明代青瓷的元素组成后发现(表2):该遗址出土青瓷与枫洞岩出土明代青瓷釉元素组成比较类似,特别是釉中具有相对较高的氧化钾含量,基本在4%以上,明显有别同时期龙泉其它窑口产青瓷。另据釉中铷、锶和锆微量元素组成看,该遗址出土青瓷与枫洞岩也较符合。综合青瓷上暗折枝桃纹纹饰、釉的质感和釉的颜色及测试数据推断该遗址出土青瓷片应属于龙泉枫洞岩窑址生产,属于明永乐时期龙泉窑专门为宫廷烧造的青瓷。


By XRF analysis it also shows that these celadon sherds from al-Mataf are sharing the same components with the Chinese collection samples (Table 2): the high inclusion of potassium oxide upto four percent distinguishes these imperial celadon wares from the other common quality celadon products at the same period. The inclusion of otherelements such as Rb, Sr and Zr can also demonstrate this argument. Based on the typological and scientific discussion, these collections from celadon sherds collected from al-Mataf can be identified as the Yongle reign dated imperial porcelain produced at the Fengdongyan site, and they were the official products only for the Imperial Court of Ming China.


根据中国明代法制规定和文献记载,御窑产品严禁宫廷以外任何官民使用,所以这些永乐时期景德镇御窑青花瓷器和龙泉窑场烧造的官样青瓷在拉斯海马阿尔马塔夫遗址出土,充分说明拉斯海马和明代政府之间存在官方交流关系。至于这些瓷器来到拉斯海马的具体途径既有可能是郑和使团携带到当地的,当然也不排除随郑和船队到中国的当地使团获明代皇帝赏赐并带回国的。


Based on the historical research of the regulations of the Ming dynasty, imperial ceramics were not allowed to the people outside of the imperial palace. These sherds of imperial ceramics fromthe site of al-Mataf of Ras al-Khaimah can demonstrate the high-level diplomatic touch between Ras al-Khaimah and Ming China. These imperial ceramic sherds were probably the gifts directly sent by the Zheng He’s voyages to thelocal rulers. Rather than this, it is also likely that the local diplomatic delegates went to China with Zheng He and had the porcelain as gifts from the Ming Yongle Emperor.


郑和航海图(局部)




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作者:丝丝 留言时间:2019-12-13 19:25:57

根据中国明代法制规定和文献记载,御窑产品严禁宫廷以外任何官民使用,所以这些永乐时期景德镇御窑青花瓷器和龙泉窑场烧造的官样青瓷在拉斯海马阿尔马塔夫遗址出土,充分说明拉斯海马和明代政府之间存在官方交流关系。至于这些瓷器来到拉斯海马的具体途径既有可能是郑和使团携带到当地的,当然也不排除随郑和船队到中国的当地使团获明代皇帝赏赐并带回国的。

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