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Chrystia Freeland: Why China touch-ups Alibaba 2023-03-12 05:46:07

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Canadian PM Chrystia Freeland tells that why China touch-ups Alibaba

This is a diary-style article that needs further wording and paragraph restructuring for readability.

  Frank (Hongde) Li, March 12, 2023 in Canada

  https://blog.creaders.net/user_blog_diary.php?did=NDU3NjE5

This topic was inspired by book Plutocrats: the rise of the New Global Super-Rich andthe Fall of Everyone Else 2012, the writer was current Canadian deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Finance Chrystia Freeland; who revealed the reason that why the higher animals live in the Law of Jungle of the lower animals way:

The cause is that the Plutocrats hijack State Apparatus; so that they are able to exercise immense and unchecked power for greedy in evilly messing human world to make the Fall of Everyone Else.

Wealth, corruption, and populism are no longer constrained by national borders, this new Gilded Age is already transforming the economics of the West as well, the entire globalized world is concentrated in fewer and fewer hands. 

The New Global Super-Rich Plutocrats made the Fall of Everyone Else, a joblessness, debt, and economic uncertainty to the sovereign nation of the plutocrats, where each crisis seems to offer a new business opportunity. 

In China, "by controlling both the economic and political institutions of their nation, the richest members of China’s National People’s Congress have amassed more wealth than every branch of American government combined--the president, his cabinet, the justices of the Supreme Court, and both houses of Congress."

But that was not the reason that China touch-ups Alibaba; but other significant reason - that relates to the arm of the government regulating economy - Financial Instruments. Some of private enterprises are excessive use of financial instruments for profit; which will weaken the ability of the government in controling the functioning of the economy through financial instruments.

This is the motivation for writing this topic. 

Human is a body of a skin wrapping 206 bones living a limited life time on Earth Ball; the bodies self-proud of higher animals as human beings; but live in the barbaric way of lower animals’ Law of Jungle by inhuman one coerced looting and killing for wealth, for faith, for democracy, for values, for nonexistent free world and for coining reasons at evil mentality.

Human is driven by the reasoning of populations of brain cells based on acquired knowledge and experiences to signal behaving. 

The computer program Alpha Go beats human Go player revealed that human intelligence is in acting as a Robert by acquired knowledge and experiences as the software driver; which inborn character caused dual results: 

1. The intelligence or quality of people is in lifelong reshaping by ideologies, philosophies and life experiences. 

2. As a Robert, if it is installed driver of servant; it will serve people, if it is installed driver of killer, it will kill people.

This was the reason that Hitler and Mussolini were able to drive compatriots as manic war ragers.

The defect brain and bad knowledge will drive people wrongful behaving; so that it is not all of people in human feature in human nature; some are in low quality without brain cells for reasoning the bad consequence on what they are in doing and going to do, therefore taking stupid as smart, taking wrong as right and promoting inhuman for human.

In 2020, article Lifelong antisocial behaviour linked to brain structure differences reports that a study from New Zealand shows that there 12% of population were life-course-persistent antisocial behavior due to the brain defects; which meant that the antisocial attackers are just living among us in unrecognizable before they made disasters.

Humans are inborn selfish animals; suppose that without inborn hormone attracted love of men and women; human will be not able to reproduction. If without inborn selfish instinct, the baby will be not able to suck nipples and die at birth. If it is no self-esteem driven abiding law and morality, it will be no fair ladies and nice gentlemen.

Human selfish instinct is the driving force for humans seeking survival, and which derived social activities are the basic forces in driving the development of economy to support the existance of society; without human selfish instinct without human society. However human selfish behaviors often conflict with social collective interests in harming society.

The cause of human facing desperate situation stems from Europe bloody inhuman civilization soiled social elements was not suitable for human life, everythings gone in facilitating the free exertion of human selfish instinct. In terms of political design ignored the complexity of human instincts; while in terms of medicine, it ignored complexity of human physiological function.

This batch of Man on Earth is low quality people coerced self-destruction towards the graveyard of the glut suicided civilizations in the Milky Way; and the liberal democracy without quality control on the players by values, freedom, human rights and various toxic ideologies dehumanizing people as lawless social garbage are in paving the suicidal orbit.

Today; even if it is in the developed rich countries; there more and more people are unable making ends meet by hard working anymore; even some people are in starving. May 17, 2023, there was a sad report that Iranians are putting their livers, corneas, and testicles up for sale on Telegram to pay off debts amid rocketing inflation and poverty.

Food shortages have long been feared globally, Ukraine is a granary for world; however, now there war is in making farmland uncultivable. It said that China builds infrastructures for African countries; it needs to cost a lot of time and spending to remove unexploded bombs at first, and it said that in some countries have 5 unexploded bombs per capita. Recent years; when China built railway in Laos, it needs to cost half a year to remove unexploded bombs.

So far, due to the threat of unexploded bombs, world widely there plenty of arable land and fruit tree forests were unable to be cultivated, and those unexploded bombs have been in killing and disabling people endlessly.

Please look at media, everywhere is teaching how to invest to grab money, everywhere is talking about stock volatility, everywhere is talking about dollar, but no one is talking about how to increase production of life necessities.

In The Ascent of Money: A Financial History of The World , Prof. Dr. Niall Ferguson indicates that, in 2006, the world total economic output was worth around $47 trillion, but financial derivatives was $473 trillion, 10 times larger.

As rare rational historian; the studies of historical tragedies and seeing cruel realities constantly update Dr. Professor’s cognition. Tortured by manmade disasters, Prof. Niall Ferguson has been digging how people make disasters.

Professor tells tragic reality, nowadays, the financial economy with a surplus of 10 times plunders on real economy; which means that there are 10 people are in making living by preying on the wealth that creates by 1 people.

Nowadays, the huge amount of financial economy are in making money by money at financial markets preying on the real economy to make the profit margin of the real economy too narrow to survive; with the operation is as easy as a finger click to drive large amount hot money destroy the financial system of country; by beast play making financial crisis.

In 2012, Canada deputy PM Chrystia Freeland; who once wrote book Plutocrats: the rise of the New Global Super-Rich andthe Fall of Everyone Else to indicate that: “the 2008 financial meltdown cost $4 trillion in economic output, fortunes were made by the very people who precipitated the disaster while millions lost their homes and their savings.”

Please look around world today, the manmade disaster that Chrystia Freeland described in fierce repeating.

For keeping political position by pleasing voters, democratic politicians raise interest rates to reduce the level of inflation, without caring about that will hurt the production of daily necessities to further make people unlivable.

Please look at the chaotic world today; even if we are not being atomic cremated by provoking Russia, but still cannot avoid the dooming of increasingly unaffordable life spending and increasingly murderous life threat home-yard.

The sad reality reminds us that the governance of human society is evil people coerced self-destruction. As the evil play of current selfish interested lawmakers; soon, themselves, their families, and all of us will be atomic cremated.

British philosopher Bertrand Russell, who sighed that: “None of our beliefs are quite true; all have at least a penumbra of vagueness and error.” But the unfortunate reality is that “One of the painful things about our time is that those who feel certainty are stupid and those with any imagination and understanding are filled with doubt and indecision.”

The doubt and indecision of reasonable people is just paving boulevard for the people who feel certainty; democracy is just the boulevard. This is reason that human has to be unreasonable one coerced living in the tragic life.

All people think selves right, Hitler made war is for others’ good, and the terrorists attack is for others’ good. This is the reason of those politicians who feel certainty is confidently making disasters by abusing government power.

Nowadays, social governance has evolved as that legislature legislating orbit; and then society runs accordingly. Human society is composed of people; social governance is also by minority people governing majority people; so that, when exploring about the approach for the better social governance, we must consider the quality of people.

Please look at May 26, 2023 YouTube video The Threat of Nuclear War: We Are Close to the Ultimate Nightmare, and please search by the name of Douglas Macgregor on YouTube; you will feel a true human soul that radical differs from those self-proclaimed world savior of politicians and social elites in democracy lighthouse America.

Dr. Douglas Macgregor, who is a PhD in International Relations with wrote five books. He is a retired U.S. Army colonel and played a significant role on the battlefield in the Gulf War and the 1999 NATO bombing of Yugoslavia. It was the profound knowledge and seeing bombing blood wakened Dr. Douglas Macgregor up to stop killing.

Only the people in the profound knowledge backed intelligence as that of Dr. Douglas Macgregor work as lawmaker is able to save world by avoiding The Threat of Nuclear War and avoiding closing to the Ultimate Nightmare.

Because of, in viewing democratic play as shame, the reasonable people kept away from democracy; which caused sad reality, that the most of democratic players are low quality without human brain cells for the humanized policy making. By quality people making policies; people need not appealing and demonstrating to fight against wrongful policies.

Such as, the law Prop 47 of California 2014 made some non-violent property crimes, where the value does not exceed $950 into misdemeanors; and then may be reduced to a misdemeanor by a court from a felony. Also, it said that Seattle City Council mulls poverty defense to legalize crimes for basic living making, such as, crimes for paying rent.

Only great democratic lawmakers encourage people making living by crimes rather than by looking for job.

Thank Harvard University for awarding Honorary Doctor of Law to former german chancellor Angela Merkel; who was the most worthwhile for the honor and help world gaining the most worthwhile return: “tear down walls of ignorance and narrow-mindedness, for nothing has to stay as it is,” to get rid of state of “describe lies as truth and truth as lies.”

I am a metallurgist & a metallographist in metal material industry, not a sociologist, nor a historian, but chaotic reality forced me to talk about; I apologize for mistakes in professional terms and improper English wording. Thanks a lot.

This topic is not for hatred attacking; but for improving human life by digging the nature of human and its civilization; this Earth is the common home of all of us; as the childish play of democratic players; who have no ability for reasoning the bad consequence on what they are in doing; their families and all of us will be finished together soon.

Also, this topic is not for criticizing anyone; but takes some practical issues as the cause discussing the reason of human world going to increasingly unlivable and with a hope that will more or less give some comfort for the inevitable psychological torture of being suppressed feeling of some entrepreneurs, who are also among the list that I appreciated.

The main factors that decisively impacting human life are the politics, economics and enterprises; this topic is trying to discuss their development and evolution from good to bad.

Dump money to garbage bin, by human survival values entrepreneurs 

European lootings and killings based Western Civilization soiled individualistic values, values everything by amount of money; Forbes releases the rich list every year, they all ignore the true value of things. The true values must be benefit for human survival and the true value must be able to contribute the humanized development of human civilization.

Viewing in this way; we can see the revolutionized achievement of Alibaba for the improvement of human life by online shopping. Though online shopping was initiated by IBM in the 1960s, but it went to popular should thank the efforts of Alibaba.

In Canada, I asked a man who uses a private car to deliver package of online shopping: Can private car delivery recover the cost of gas spending? He said, I get two dollars from per delivered package and there are hundreds of package deliveries in this small area without waste of too much gas. 

This should atribute to Ant Group or Ant Financial of Alibaba.

According to wikipedia that was last edited on 22 June 2023, Ant Group, formerly known as Ant Financial, is an affiliate company of the Alibaba Group,  as world's largest mobile (digital) payment platform Alipay, which serves over 1.3 billion users and 80 million merchants, with total payment volume reaching ¥118 trillion RMB in June 2020. 

The cause of the government of China touch ups Alibaba from 2020 Ant Group was set to raise US$34.5 billion in the world's largest IPO. In this regards, involved complex reasons beyond simple IPO; I don't like to make more comment; people may search by oneself. It is better in Mandarin.   

Here, I only want to indicate that Fnancial Instrument is the basic arms of Gov promoting and regulating economy; which involved the fate of a country and the lifeblood of people. 

Since 1919, British economist Keynes put forward macroeconomic ideas successively, 1926 published the End of laissez-faire, and 1936 published The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money, all countries have regarded controlling currency issuance, adjusting interest rates in 2%, and actively investing to stimulate economic development as a means of regulating the national economy. 

Now, Alibaba promoted buying and selling online has revolutionized the way of people live by largely convenient to life, which enlightened us to deep into the consideration that how to promote the advancement of human life or human civilization developing towards humanized way. Even if we can never get rid of the reality that everything has to be driven by Money and Greed.

For example, Bill Gates and Melinda Gates, the founders and operators of Microsoft, people always pay attention to the wealth they have acquired, but ignored their great contribution to the progress of human civilization - the Microsoft Office system has revolutionized the efficiency of corporate management and social governance; which contribution was just huge and valuable that is worth to be viewed as humanized people and cannot be measured by any amount of money. Thanks for Bill Gates and Melinda Gates.

Significantly, in 2015 TED speech; Bill Gates warned the world that highly infectious viruses would kill millions of people in the future; the foreknowledge prediction was proved by COVID-19 pandemic kills 20 million people globally.

The unique contributions and achievements showed the outstanding of Bill Gates in unique quality that is rare people able to compete.

In this world, to do anything to be successful, amy people have to devote all own energy and intelligence, and in many cases; have to  completely forget own normal life.

Thanks Melinda Gates for supporting Bill gates; so that he was able to put full ennergy on right business. Global people have to say thank you Melinda. Now Melinda needs to see this photo and make a recall for the past life; a life that was meaningful than that of the most of women who are also busy all day of their lives. It was Bill gates to have led you in the meaningful life. I don't like to see former in your title.

In this topic; the annoying talkative chattering is trying to change the cognitive habit of people in looking at or thinking about a issue by egoistic values that planted by the egoistic culture of European plunder and killing Dark Ages to a collective values in humanized perspective of how to be conducive to human survival; from the ideological point of view in the root base of thought or intelligence; which is not easy; but is extremely difficult. 

In this topic the content regarding macroeconomist Keynes was excerpt-reedited from Mar. 1, 2008 article To make possible from Impossible by Breaking the Shackles of Dogmatic. Keynes was rare economist, who got rid of the narrow vision of ethnicity and nationalsm to formulate economic plans from global vision.

In book Plutocrats: the rise of the New Global Super-Rich andthe Fall of Everyone Else 2012, the current Canadian deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Finance Chrystia Freeland; who revealed the reason that why the higher animals live in the Law of Jungle of the lower animals way:

The cause is that the Plutocrats hijack State Apparatus; so that they are able to exercise immense and unchecked power for greedy in evilly messing human world to make the Fall of Everyone Else.

Chrystia Freeland sees clear the dark side of companies in making evils 

Plutocrats was the son of companies. Chrystia Freeland was seeing clear the dark side of companies from her outsanding intelligence and quality as the winner of Rhodes Scholar with profound professional studies on historical manmade disasters; sadly great many people have no such quality, even if the most of entrepreneurs; so that they mindlessly take stupid as smart and play wrong as right; without sence for what they are in doing; besides self proud of great contributions.

Please follow Chrystia Freeland to learn the new disaster of companies in making.

---In the last few decades; the means to be rich has changed dramatically; so that the income gap is not between the 1 percent and the 99 percent, but within the wealthiest 1 percent. Plutocrats proves that it is the wealthiest 0.1 percent who are outpacing the rest of us at break-neck speed. What’s changed is more than numbers. Today, most colossal fortunes are new, not inherited. 

---As a transglobal class of successful professionals, today’s self-made oligarchs often feel they have more in common with one another than with their countrymen back home. Bringing together the economics and psychology of these new super-rich, Plutocrats puts us inside a league very much of its own, with its own rules. They exercised immense and unchecked power in their countries. 

---Wealth, corruption, and populism are no longer constrained by national borders, this new Gilded Age is already transforming the economics of the West as well, the entire globalized world is concentrated in fewer and fewer hands.

---The New Global Super-Rich Plutocrats made the Fall of Everyone Else, a joblessness, debt, and economic uncertainty to the sovereign nation of the plutocrats, where each crisis seems to offer a new business opportunity. 

---In America, where the 2008 financial meltdown cost $4 trillion in economic output, fortunes were made by the very people who precipitated the disaster while millions lost their homes and their savings. in Europe and Asia, the austerity caused economic stagnation, a "lost generation" of the young and unemployed.

---The world of the 1% has arrived, and the wealth gap is now greater in many countries than during the Gilded Age, the era of the Rockefellers, Carnegies and Vanderbilts. Can our stressed democracies deal with the fallout? Or have governments simply become instruments of the new elite?

Above was Chrystia Freeland revealed the tragic reality that the liberal democracy actually is demon in facilitating Super-Rich Plutocrats recklessly ruining the life of 99.9% of hard working people.

In book Chrystia Freeland specially indicated that, in China, "by controlling both the economic and political institutions of their nation, the richest members of China’s National People’s Congress have amassed more wealth than every branch of American government combined--the president, his cabinet, the justices of the Supreme Court, and both houses of Congress."

The comments of Chrystia Freeland inspired me to think the reason and found that "the richest members of China’s National People’s Congress have amassed more wealth than every branch of American government combined" was not the reason that China touch-ups Alibaba; but other significant reason - that relates to the arm of the government regulating economy - Financial Instruments; which is the motivation for writing this topic. 

Some of private enterprises are excessive use of financial instruments for profit; which will weaken the ability of the government in controling the functioning of the economy through financial instruments.

Here, I want to point out that above information regarding the book was from some summarized introduction about the book in somewhat one-sided, which is focused on the argument of social polarization, though it is the mainstream, but not all. So called social polarization by seeing a point to understand whole is extremely harmful. It arouses people's hatred of entrepreneurs, passively slowdown work in badly affect social labor productivity.

Since that the wealth of some Rich is not from evil means of plunder. For example, the wealth of many wealthy people was from and used to invest in the means of production of operating real economy, and produce life necessities; by which providing jobs for people living making and creating tax revenue for government social governing. These rich people are the valuable contributors to society.

In viewing of above, July 4, 2013, I once wrote My View on the Argument of Social Polarization with the purpose to reduce or avoid the hostility of Employees toward the Entrepreneurs by properly understanding the Rich, in which I indicated that the money of those Rich is not in handy for self enjoyment but mostly being used in the business' running with creating employment and revenue. Therefore, in fact, the money is being shared by public in playing the role of public wealth. 

In viewing in this practical way, we can draw a general conclusion: it is that means of production is not personal consuming goods, no matter who owns it, the owner only possess the power of disposal or organization of the production of social material wealth. Actually, the Enterprise and the means of production is shared socially as public wealth.

In some extent, the Enterprise is a life boat that is shared to make living by Employees & Employers together; to view in this practical way, the Poor are not poor as some people complained; and the Rich are not rich as some people fantasized at all.  

This is radical different from those who use financial instrumrnts to plunder on the real economy and trigger economic crises.

In 2019, an article reports that Chrystia Freeland said Liberal democracies are being "hijacked by angry populist politicians “the doubts creeping in inside liberal democracy… liberal democracies that are becoming totally polarized societies, divided into these hostile – even warring – tribes who can’t talk to each other, and societies that have been hijacked by angry populist politicians.” Freeland said this theme exists in the “unhappy liberal democracies,” where “the details may be unique but the basic storyline is the same.”

As democratic player, Chrystia Freeland was able to point out the fatal harm of the liberal democracy, it seems rare politician having realized this point and which is the root cause in ruining human world.

Throughout history, the European-based West has been living in a barbaric state of bloody plundering and killing, life-threat conditions made it difficult for people making living, so that accustomed to selfish concern, and take self-interest at the expense of others as a matter of course; therefore, it formed a culture of egoism. 

I call such a culture as European based Western Individualistic Civilization; and it derived humanized social elements have been inhumanly ruining human world by facilitating reckless low quality people exerting their demon mentality.

Please remember that it is not all people in human feature are in human nature; some are in low quality of inhuman mentality in taking stupid as smart; taking wrong as right and promoting bad for good by harming others as pleasure. If we want to get out of the Law of Juggle to live in the humanized way, we must recover the power of State Apparatus to the hands of humanized quality people from the low quality people.

Don’t put hopes on evildoers in self-conscience; because of inborn brain defects made them low-quality in cognitively impaired; which are radically different from intelligence healthy people. They believe others are evildoers in doing bad, so that they think themselves in fighting justice for people, and in striving create a livable life for people.

Plutocrats; U.S. President Abraham Lincoln predicated the birth in 1865

At the time of the end of life, Lincoln warned that the corporations have been over hailed, and the corruption in high-level will come. The money powered group will try to extend its rule by influencing the prejudice or preconceived idea of people until the wealth is accumulated a certain extent in the hands of some people, they will lead to the demise of the United States of America. 

Above worries of Lincoln was translated from Mandarin commentary of TV documentary - The Power of Company; which was produced by China Central Television - CCTV in 2009; in viewing that 2008, the financial tsunami badly impacted on the global economy, simply due to the poor operation of some companies to have enlightened people to think about the nature of company that gained power to shake world. 

The commentary indicates that the organizational nature driven by human greed forced to have to maximize the interests of shareholders of companies; which has planted the seeds of many tragedies and comedies since its born until this day. Of course, it's possible, even natural, that companies will be disruptive because companies need to reward those investors in selfish concerns.

The commentary indicates that in the past few centuries, corporations have ravaged the Americas, Africa, and Asia. They have turned tens of thousands of people into commodities, and they have forced countless plants, animals, minerals, and even bacteria and viruses to migrate. From tulips to real estate, from Amsterdam to New Amsterdam, from 1637 to 2008, countless stock market bubbles failed to prevent the next risk-taking.

President Abraham Lincoln was deep insight the nature of companies under driven by human greedy instinct; which has determined that for profiting; the companies will use and create various methods, even crimes, to make profits.

Now, the corruption in high-level has been promoted as Plutocrats by money corrupting democracy to gain unchecked power for greedy by all means; even crimes. 

It was precisely because of corporate-based Plutocrats corrupting democracy by legal-protected political contributions to coerce democratic politicians making disasters; so that former President Jimmy Carter indicate that thU.S. is the most warlike nation in the history of the world and has been at war for all but 16 years of its 242-year history. 

Carter said that we have wasted $3 trillion in military for wars; but China has been investing in its own infrastructure; China has 18,000 miles of high-speed railroad. How many miles of high-speed railroad do we have in this country? Zero. 

April 2023, the environmental lawyer, and the nephew of former President John F. Kennedy, Dr. Robert F. Kennedy Jr, who indicated the different deeds of the U.S. and China: Over the past decade, our country has spent trillions bombing roads, ports, bridges, and airports.”“China spent the equivalent building the same across the developing world.”

For facilitaing greedy, the Plutocrats profited people tout inhuman bomber democracy as perfect humanized; while maliciously vilify the humanized builder autocracy of China as evil dictatorship.

In order to facilitate greed; in terms of economic management, the Plutocrats profited people advocate neo-liberalism to cut off the arm of government supervision, thus made capitalism expand disorderly, brutally, and infinitely, and touted this unreasonable behavior to the lofty realm of universal values and morality. Such barbaric play is not only harmed the world, but also completely destructed the United States itself.

In April 27, 2023, U.S.' National Security Advisor Jake Sullivan, who proposed new Washington consensus in remarks on Renewing American Economic Leadership at the Brookings Institution to emphasize that neoliberalism destroyed economy of the U.S., so that economic development cannot be unrestrained free anymore, and we must take it in state control; which is state owned economy that China has been in doing and which is that U.S.' politicians have been condemning. 

Now, the outcomes of the Plutocrats profited people provoking Russo-Ukraine War was contrary to the initiator's original intention, it can't beat Russia, but caused a fatal backfire to fatally burnt oneself. Now the United States completely lost the trust of the people of global countries. The trust was established by American people gratefully saved the world people from the disaster of World War II and postwar economic reconstruction.

With more and more victims of being Plutocrats profited people deceived and plundered people awakening to lead their countries to strive de-dollarization, local currency trade settlement; local bank credit payment and regional trade and currency systems to flee from long being plundered state, the Plutocrats relied democracy and the players have lost their bases to live on deceiving, bullying and looting.

Now, the childish play of Plutocrats has castrated male gland of own country to have damaged the secretion of male hormones and reduced vitality of stimulating them evilly play. The United States has been hopeless until the dissolution of the US Federation takes the plunder-tools dollar away to tomb together.

Even so, we should not ignore the positive side of companis in decisively promoting the progress of human society.

Companies are a basic force in promoting the progress of human civilization

The commentary of TV documentary - The Power of Company introduces that Stephen Johnson Field (1816-1899) the most rational judge in the history of the United States, who once indicates that almost all businesses that need to use large amounts of capital are organized in the form of company. It is just the company that provides us with works, helps us, and enables us to live a life of dignity.  

On the website of CCTV there was introduction about the background of the creation of the documentary The Power of Company. I felt that was meaningful for rational understanding the positive role of companies, so I translate some sections as below.

Today, companies are everywhere. Our sources of wealth; the entrepreneurial ideals; the basic necessities of life; emotional sustenance; and interpersonal communication are all inextricably linked with an organization of company. The company condenses the individual of life and makes it an economic power stronger than any individual makes. Companies enable collaboration between strangers beyond blood or geographic ties. The company realizes a new chapter in the economic life of mankind.

After centuries of evolution, the company is not just an economic organization, but has become a social organization between the state and individuals with great influence and dominance in various fields: promoting free and fair competition, establishing and improving the rule of society, promoting the progress of science and technology, improving the civilization level of society, changing people's life style and mutual relationship, changing the way of cooperation and competition between countries.

In a certain sense, the acceleration of globalization is promoted by companies, because globalization is a network composed of companies. Global resources, global markets, and global rules are the beautiful dream of the companies. Today, when hundreds or even dozens of multinational corporations control the operation of the world economy, the power of the company deserves our attention. And just at this time, the world encountered the first economic crisis in the era of globalization.

After the financial crisis hit hard in 2008, how will the corporate system change? We are full of expectations and confidence in the infinite possibilities of the future. 

The power of the company is growing day by day - it is worth noting that the companies play positive force in various fields, there are also negative effects caused by company's own ills or the institutional environment.

Above was the translation from the introduction of CCTV.

                  <<<<<<>>>>>> 

It was the civilization of China helping the West ended the inhuman Dark Ages. However, driven by inhuman genes, they themselves developed into a new inhuman civilization; by toxic values dehumanized people valueless and by democracy grants Gov-power to low qaulity people childish play ruin human world unlivable.    --- Frank (Hongde) Li, June 9, 2023 in Canada

The Western Civilization has been in dooming human world.

Please look at the chaotic world; even if we are luckily not atomic havoc by inhuman antisocial, but still cannot avoid the doom of increasingly people unaffordable life spending and increasingly murderous life threat home-yard. Since that 12% of population is lifelong antisocial, the Europe individualistic social elements are in protecting them to ruin us.

Today; even if it is in the developed rich countries; there more and more people are unable making ends meet in starving. May 17, 2023, there was a shock report that Iranians are putting their livers, corneas, and testicles up for sale on Telegram to pay off debts amid rocketing inflation and poverty.

Food shortages have long been feared globally, Ukraine is a granary for world; however, now wars making farmland uncultivable. It said that China builds infrastructures for African countries; it needs to remove unexploded bombs, and it said that in some countries have 5 unexploded bombs per capita.

Recent years; when China built railway in Laos, it needs to cost half a year to remove unexploded bombs. So far, because of the threat of unexploded bombs, globally there many farmlands were unable to be cultivated, and those unexploded bombs are in killing and disabling people endlessly.

Why human world was being purposefully bombed unlivable in everywhere.

April 2019, article US the most warlike nation in the history of the world: Carter reports that former President Jimmy Carter once indicates that America has been at war for all but 16 years of its 242-year history, because of a tendency to try to force others to “adopt American principles.” We have wasted $3 trillion on wars; but China invests in its own infrastructure with 18,000 miles of high-speed railroad. How many miles of high-speed railroad we have? Zero.

April 2023, the environmental lawyer, and the nephew of former President John F. Kennedy, Dr. Robert F. Kennedy Jr, who indicated the deeds of the two different civilizations; “Over the past decade, our country has spent trillions bombing roads, ports, bridges, and airports.”“China spent the equivalent building the same across the developing world.”

The wars and bombings were purposefully provoked by the democratic players for protecting them relied democracy and values for enjoying self-given unreadable high salary, unreadable luxury benefits and luxury political privileges by splurging life-saving money of poor civilians to force their children to fight for democracy by killing of each other.

2006, in The War of the World: Twentieth-Century Conflict and the Descent of the West; the outstanding Professor. Dr. Niall Ferguson wrote that: Why the twentieth century history was bloodiest by far? Why did unprecedented material progress go hand in hand with total war and genocide? The rise of democracy during the 20th century should have reduced the incidence of war, however, the waves of democratization were followed by increases in the number of civil wars and wars of secession with around 19 or 20 million people were killed in around 100 major military conflicts. 

Please look at the thoughtful names that fabricated by the democratic players for ganging up to enjoy the fruits of democracy: Hawks, Dovish, Donkey, Elephant, Left wing, Right wing, Extreme right, Extreme left, Green Party, Tea party, Liberal party, Conservative Party, Democratic Party, New Democratic Party and in coining according to the needs.

The whimsical names prove that holy legislature actually was played as zoo for fun of kids or a stage for the play of psychosis. Humanized people must ask whether those democratic players dehumanized or have never been humanized at all; for greedy they tout the world bomber as human life saver and label world builder as human life destroyer.

The rich of those bombers were not entirely stemmed from the creation of material wealth brought from democratic governance, but from the plunder globally by troops and later by economy. Such as; the Eight-Nation Alliance looted 980 million taels of silver, plus 20 million taels to the church by Boxer Indemnity from China for a total of 1 billion taels. 

The bombers yelling values and human rights dehumanized people without ability for the creation of material wealth. Now the world countries collectively rise up against being bullied and robbed, the bombers lost foundation for survival. 

Why as the same so called higher animals of human beings; some act as bomber in destroying human life; and some act as builder in profiting human life? The root is at that different civilizations cultured people in different values.

The bombers were in Individualistic Values that cultured by European looting and killing culture promoted Western Individualistic Civilization in viewing that seeking for greedy looting by provoking wars was a matter of course. The killing life threat history solidified the genes in seeking survival to always fight to be No.1 one hegemony in the world.

The builder was in Collectivistic Values that cultured by China’s Confucianism collectivist culture promoted Eastern Collectivistic Civilization in viewing that seeking for coexistence enjoying peaceful life was a matter of course. The peaceful prosperous life history solidified the genes in seeking survival by creating a livable social enviroment.

Also; the 20 million of Covid deaths were caused by barbaric Western Civilization that protects people lawlessly greed by yelling unscientific and unproven kicked away the handy cheaper medicinals for profiting expensive genetic one; otherwise, there would 90% of Covid died people were still living in enjoying lives with their beloved families.  

Philosophically; the Traditional Chinese medicine can help us verifying daily diets, diet supplements and even some chemicals as medicinal use; thereby helping people self help in medications to get rid of the harms of greed.

The Western Individualistic Civilization has been in protecting inhuman people dooming human beings.

Nowadays, social governance has been evolved as that of legislature policymaking paves orbit and then society runs accordingly; a country acts as bomber in endlessly provoking wars shows that the inhuman-warlike-instinct people are in dominating the policymaking; the way out is at humanizing legislature by humanized people as legislators; such as, the Engineers; Scientists; CEOs; Economists etc. as part time in self-reliance as that China has been in doing.

But the way of China will impact the interests of current lawmakers and on-power politicians; the social advancement should not be paid by anyone; in this concern I request Microsoft Bill Gates and Melinda Gates acting as coordinators to join hands with Former U.S. President Jimmy Carter; Warren Buffett, Charlie Munger and some noted social elites; who have gained strong social influence to promote the formation of a non-partisan civil legislature in group base taking 30% of vote right of legislature and works as a political patching to promote current legislature to work as desired.               --- Frank (Hongde) Li, June 12, 2023 in Canada

Feb. 2, 2023, Serbian President Aleksandar Vucic ominous warns that: "Today we are witnessing a kind of Third World War, which will become larger, wider and more severe than today in the coming days, weeks and months. Mark my words. In a whirlwind of war, you…cannot be neutral, remain silent, and hide under a rock, because they will not allow you to do that."

Sober Vucic reveals urgency; it is time of life or death, human beings need to reflect, why the steering wheel of the State Apparatus is out of control, any social garbage can reach it and drive it at will by self-confessed as a world leader to yell commanding world; and viciously coerces those who flee from danger. It is kids joking liberal democracy granting steering wheel to the social garbage to ruin the life of people and themselves.  

It is joking liberal democracy granting steering wheel of the State Apparatus to the social garbage, who has no ability for making a right judgment in taking wrong as right and promoting bad for good to ruin the life of people and themselves.    --- Frank (Hongde) Li, March 19 2023; Morning 01:13

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For easy understanding this topic; it is necessary to briefly recall the history of economics development. In this regard, there were a lot of translated text introductions about China, but they were too respect for the original Chinese text in the translation to be easily understood, here is the introduction according to my understanding.

It was the civilization of China ended Dark Ages and gave the birth of modern economics

European enlightenment thinkers nearly successfully led Europe following the model of China

British submarine lieutenant-commander Gavin Menzies, as career life, once visited many countries and shocked by the ancient monuments that left by Zheng He Fleet of China. After retirement, on own spending, he cost 14 years to have researched on Ming treasure Voyages by visiting historic sites of 120 countries and more than 900 libraries, museums and archives. Then accordingly wrote books 1421: The Year China Discovered the World (2002) and 1434: The Year a Magnificent Chinese Fleet Sailed to Italy and Ignited the Renaissance (2008).

In the book, Mr. Gavin Menzies appreciated the practice of Zheng He Fleet with 7 times around the world, besides fair trade, did not carry out colonial ruling. He wrote that, in 1434, a Chinese fleet arrived in Tuscany Italy and presented the pope with a large amount books, from a diverse range of fields: geography, astronomy, mathematics, art, printing, architecture, steel manufacturing, civil engineering, military weaponry, surveying, cartography, and more. The knowledge of China sparked the inventiveness of the Renaissance to have formed the basis of European civilisation. From that date onward, Europeans embraced Chinese ideas, discoveries, and inventions.

Also, since 1400s, European missionaries continuously enter China and translate the culture of China back home to have triggered Renaissance, Enlightenment, and French Revolution to push Europe entered the new Dark Ages with new type of barbaric play, and continued provoking wars driven by warlike genetic hobby. 

According to https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imperial_examination#West, Imperial Examination was introduced to Europe as early as 1570; and was disseminated broadly in Europe. “During the 18th century, the Imperial Examinations were often discussed in conjunction with Confucianism, which attracted great attention from contemporary European thinkers such as Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Voltaire, Montesquieu, Baron d'Holbach, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, and Friedrich Schiller. Voltaire claimed that the Chinese had ‘perfected moral science.’”

“François Quesnay advocated an economic and political system modeled after that of the Chinese. According to Ferdinand Brunetière (1849-1906), followers of Physiocracy such as François Quesnay, whose theory of free trade was based on Chinese classical theory, were sinophiles bent on introducing "l'esprit chinois" to France. He also admits that French education was really based on Chinese literary examinations which were popularized in France by philosophers, especially Voltaire. Western perception of China in the 18th century admired the Chinese bureaucratic system as favourable over European governments for its seeming meritocracy.”

According to François Quesnay from Wikipedia, Quesnay is known for his writings on Chinese politics and society. His book Le Despotisme de la Chine, written in 1767, describes his views of the Chinese imperial system. He was supportive of the meritocratic concept of giving scholars political power. The rational and knowledgeable Voltaire and Leibniz, who both highly appreciated China’s governance in selecting learned people; and Voltaire and Leibniz were both specially wrote about the rational practice of China.

According to the practice of François Quesnay, Voltaire, Leibniz and other enlightenment thinkers of Europe; the Europe was nearly successfully following the political practice of China in Technocratic Democracy through Examination selecting learned people as officials; then Human society would avoid the catastrophe of the First World Wars. However, the good was turned bad by French political philosopher Montesquieu (1689 – 1755).

In the "Spirit of Law", Montesquieu defined China as an autocratic country and an imperial dictatorship; by which he provided confidence for people condemning China as dictatorship until this day; so that misled the West to abandon Technocratic Democracy to choose liberal democracy of childish play as this days. 

The ancient economic thoughts of China promoted the development of modern economics

In 1750s,  the term wu wei of Tao Te Ching enlightened French Physiocrat François Quesnay to have coined economic idea laissez-faire – free market without Gov-intervention; which inspired Adam Smith writing economic bible the Wealth of Nations to have further coined Invisible Hand in 1776 . Then later the Invisible Hand encouraged greedy people to have further advocated as lawless Neoliberalism to advocate cutting off all of the supervisions of Government; thereby developing various financial instruments to freely plunder on real economy to endlessly make disasters.

The fatal harm of laissez-faire in over freed market inspired British economist John Keynes considers for the solution, since 1919, he put forward macroeconomic ideas successively, 1926 published the End of Laissez-faire, and 1936 further detailedly put forward The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money, since then all countries have regarded controlling currency issuance, adjusting interest rates in 2%, and actively Gov-investing to stimulate economic development as a essential means of regulating the national economy.

In the word of wu wei, wu means none, and wei means ability, capability or the accomplishment from action; so that the term wu wei means that government must reduce the excessive harassment on the livelihood of people, for example, reduce excessive taxation, avoid arbitrary assignment of labor and so on; which was a government could do in the ancient backward agricultural economy. This was not as recklessly complicated as the West clamoring in today.

In the west everything evilly used to make evil. The Laissez-faire was not only developed lawless evil of Neoliberalism; but also developed lawless evil term of “individual has a natural right to freedom”. According to Laissez-faire Wikipedia gave explanation:

1... Laissez-faire is a type of economic system in which transactions between private groups of people are free from any form of economic interventionism (such as subsidies or transfer payments). The markets should naturally be competitive with the aims of maximizing freedom by allowing markets to self-regulate. In the mid-18th century, the laissez-faire capitalism emerged. 

2... As a system of thought, laissez-faire rests on the following axioms: "the individual is the basic unit in society, i.e. the standard of measurement in social calculus; the individual has a natural right to freedom; and the physical order of nature is a harmonious and self-regulating system."

In the west, the economic ides wu wei of Tao Te Ching was evil used to coin too many evil ideas to deliberately create disasters.

But in the birthplace of wu wei of the mother of laissez-faire or Capitalism; China did not make the tragedies as that of in the Europe and the United States in past and today, right now; everything comes from humanized social governance by selecting humanized people in humanized manner performing social governance.

Here is a good example; August 2012, Shanghai Pudong Development Bank and Silicon Valley Bank jointly established SPD Silicon Valley Bank China. 

In view of the bankruptcy of Silicon Valley Bank US, on March 11, 2023, SPD Silicon Valley Bank China specially announced that the bank has been operation strictly following the laws and regulations of China, with a standardized corporate governance structure and an independent balance sheet; which means that the bankruptcy of Silicon Valley Bank US cannot affect the operation of SPD Silicon Valley Bank China.

From the announcement of SPD Silicon Valley Bank China; we may get the feeling of that; before the U.S. bank crisis, the bankers in SPD Silicon Valley Bank China would hate the strict supervision of the government of China. However, the strict supervision has helped them to avoid operational crises, and now they are grateful and thank for the strict supervision of the government of China; and proudly declare our operation is safe.

The root reason of all these lies in the difference between Chinese Collectivistic Culture and American Individualistic Culture; and which result in the difference in the social governance concept and the governance practice.

It was the civilization of China in pushing the progress of human civilization, but the West always went bad way.

Here there is necessary to introduce about Tao Te Ching

As my view, Tao Te Ching may understand as The Doctrine of Morality. It emerged around 400 BC China to have summarized the experiences in past; of the lessons of history; by the enlightenments of hundreds years of war life since 771BC; and by which enlightens the discussions on self-cultivation, social governance, the art of war, health preservation; but mostly focus on politics of how to run a country peacefully, by put forward suggestions and advice in social governance and personal behavior backed by philosophies and wisdoms to have promoted the humanized development of civilization of China in the development of philosophy, science, politics, and religion.

The Tao Te Ching traditionally credited to the sage Laozi who was the founder of dialectical philosophy Daoism in mandarin or Taoism in Cantonese; it dialectically views the universe as a system of the unity of opposites in composed of many components - subsystems with own feature of unity of opposites in a state of constant self-regulating balance. By Yin and Yang represent the two sides of the opposites as the interdependent in contradiction and reunification.

Tao Te Ching traditionally credited to the sage Laozi who was the founder of dialectical philosophy Daoism or Taoism in Cantonese; it dialectically views the universe as a system of the unity of opposites in composed of many components - subsystems with own feature of unity of opposites in a state of constant self-regulating balance. By Yin and Yang represent the two sides of the opposites as the interdependent in contradiction and reunification.  

                                                              In Daoism, the advantages and disadvantages of the opposite parties are in a state of continuous change and transformation. In the objective world, from as small as the atom to as large as the universe, they are all a unity of opposites, and the opposite parties are in a state of constant change and transformation. In the subjective world, the two parties of contradictory are also in a state of unity of opposites, the advantages and disadvantages are transforming into each other, and each other is interdependence; one lost, the other also cannot exist.

For example, the United States is entangled with some Western countries confront with China and constitute the two sides of the contradiction. The West is playing around with democracy and freedom, playing with nihilistic values and human rights without pragmatic and its decline is a matter of course. While Chinese government and people are pragmatic in hard work develop economy, and its economic strength surpasses that of the West is a matter of course. However, the West does not understand this point. They maliciously slander China, because of, now China is strong enough and they can't plunder again.

Daoism was taken as leading philosophy in China and its principles and terminologies were used to develop Traditional Chinese medicine - TCM - well in line with human life; due to that human body is a complex organism in acting as chaotic system that must be treated by chaos theory; so that disease treatment is by restoration of Yin-Yang balance rather than simply killing or genetic patching; while precision seeking philosophy Reductionism guided Western medicine is in the opposite; otherwise 90% of 6.8 million Covid died people would be alive enjoying life with their beloved families.

The dialectical philosophy cultured people of China with the quality of dialectical thinking; so that the people of China carefully dealing with anything by looking at problems from different angles, at different sides and different levels, the good consequence and the bad consequence in detailed without omissions or mistake; so that lesser reckless; never positively aggression and plundering others besides defense; which was the reason that China built Great Wall to avoid wars, rather than simply fight back to destroy enemy and the big Zheng He fleet 7 times around the world without looting and colonizing; and bringing books to Italy to trigger the Renaissance. This is the root reason that the people of China and the people in neighboring countries are able to enjoy a long peaceful life with the contribution of the West admired Asian Values or Confucian Asia.

In contrast, in the West, in the similar historical period produced philosophy dialectics that is as similar as Daoism; it found by Ancient Greek philosopher Heraclitus (535–475 BC). But the fate of two similar philosophies on the opposite side of the Earth was opposite.

In West; the valuable philosophy was in idle without influence on civilization besides for academic chewing, then the chewers swollen belly, hiccup, and stinky fart to pollute society by the seductive name thinker in so called Think Tanks that is more as cow hair; in which so called Thinkers are food human food to shit dog shit in making demons thoughts to support and rationalize the beast manners of demons. For money, the Thinkers in Tanks sell their soul.

The great contribution British macroeconomist John Keynes

Now return to main topic, as mentioned above, the doctrine laissez-faire as enlightenment begets British macroeconomist John Keynes giving the birth of the theory of macroeconomics by written The end of laissez-faire in 1926; and the ideas fundamentally changed the economic policies of governments. Keynes advocates that government must be intervention in the market or economy by regulating interest rates; investments and more to stimulate economic development.

Here, there is necessary to talk a little more about Keynes because he was less dogmatic thinking with the spirit of bold questioning - why and how to fight against outdated doctrines, it could help us to advance the way of thinking, and avoid to fall into the trap of dogmatism, it is the prerequisite to do anything correctly.

There were people, who have been questioning that Keynes did not contribute to the Roosevelt’s New Deal, because of his The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money (General Theory) published in 1936, at that time, the New Deal has primarily saved the U.S. economy already. If we go on this way of thinking, it was that seems the achievements of New Deal to have fully contributed to the General Theory. Therefore, Keynes was certainly a copycat that is not only lack of talent, but also lack of moral.

This phenomenon shows that people are accustomed going into the dogmatic trap. They can only see the surface of things, but cannot make deep research into the essence. I firmly believed that though there were no reports that Keynes had suggestion for New Deal, however, he was the father of New Deal. The reason is that long before the New Deal put into practice, he had put forward the ideas that Government should intervene in economy. Such as:

In 1919 in Economic Consequences of the Peace he started to publish his theories. After WWI, Keynes tried to reduce the huge reparations demanded by the Allies against Germany; he argues that Europe could not prosper without an equitable, effective and integrated economic system, which was impossible by the economic terms of the treaty.

In 1924 in Monetary Reform he advocated the Government to control the economy by currency, which was through suitable inflation to stabilize prices and production levels.

In 1926 he published The end of laissez-faire to have publicly rejected the Laissez-faire principle for the free market. His view should be considered as theoretical foundation of New Deal in some extent, especially ideological preparation.

In 1929 he suggested British Liberal Party to run the election campaign by advocating the government-run public works (such as, roads, residential construction, the implementation of electrification, land reclamation, etc.) to overcome the problem in unemployment.

In 1930, in Treatise on money he proposed to control the economy by regulating the interest rates.

His above ideas were partially appeared in the New Deal.

In my view, the greatest contribution of Keynes was not the General Theory but The end of laissez-faire (The End), because it was the ideological foundation for General Theory. Though his former recommendations were far away from detailed steps that applied in the New Deal, however they acted as the pharos to show the correct direction that Government must intervene of the economy directly rather than let it unbridled free developing.

In past 154 years before New Deal, the market was controlled by Invisible Hand that advocated by Adam Smith. This doctrine has been strongly advocated by some interest groups under greedy purpose, the government had to have abandoned the regulation on market. Laissez-faire market has led to many insurmountable economical problems. In this context, Keynes wrote The end of laissez-faire.

In The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money (General Theory) 1936, John Keynes introduced the planned economy into the free market economy of Adam Smith.

Keynesian theory helped the United States to have gotten out of the Great Depression and refreshed the economic strength, thereby to accelerate the end of World War II. But after decades of development, there some new economic problems were emerged and accumulated up again. Then United States and Britain took the new reforms by reducing the share of planned economy under the lead of Ronald Reagan and Margaret Thatcher.

In Britain, the home county of Keynes and Adam Smith has suffered the processes from original private ownership to be nationalized, and then from state-owned ownership to be privatized again. As a veteran of the capitalist countries, although, in the stage of nationalized, the United Kingdom should belong to the socialist country, however, it seemed no one to doubt its nature of capitalism until now.

Britain has early established a social welfare system that seems a part of the communist society. However, things will develop in the opposite when they become extreme. Abundant social welfare bred people to love ease and detest work; the idleness can deplete any amount of fortune. Once to be envied social welfare now is developed too heavy to burden. Then rational Prime Minister David Cameron was wisely making new reforms to save Britain by cutting down the public expenditure, including the social welfare.

Many facts have showed that some of politicians were acting as dogmatists, only follow outdated doctrine or the old ruts from one extreme to another, and cannot flexibly adjust the direction according to the practical circumstances.

There is a comment in Mandarin on a Website of China, said that, Western capitalist countries have taken Keynesian macro economics as a general policy. The history has stepped into the Keynesian era. The macroeconomics created by Keynes has developed into an independent discipline. Moreover, Keynes also contributed to the establishment of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.

Now, let us join with the Keynes to experience his anxious concern that happened in so far away but feel as happened in yesterday by reading some of his comments in The End.

“These many elements have contributed to the current intellectual bias, the mental make-up, the orthodoxy of the day. The compelling force of many of the original reasons has disappeared but, as usual, the vitality of the conclusions outlasts them. To suggest social action for the public good to the City of London is like discussing the Origin of Species with a bishop sixty years ago. The first reaction is not intellectual, but moral. An orthodoxy is in question, and the more persuasive the arguments the graver the offence. Nevertheless, venturing into the den of the lethargic monster, at any rate I have traced his claims and pedigree so as to show that he has ruled over us rather by hereditary right than by personal merit.”

“The average man averts his attention from the problem, and has no clear idea what he really thinks and feels about the whole confounded matter.” “Confusion of thought and feeling leads to confusion of speech.”

“The next step forward must come, not from political agitation or premature experiments, but from thought. We need by an effort of the mind to elucidate our own feelings. At present our sympathy and our judgement are liable to be on different sides, which is a painful and paralysing state of mind. In the field of action reformers will not be successful until they can steadily pursue a clear and definite object with their intellects and their feelings in tune. There is no party in the world at present which appears to me to be pursuing right aims by right methods. Material poverty provides the incentive to change precisely in situations where there is very little margin for experiments. Material prosperity removes the incentive just when it might be safe to take a chance. Europe lacks the means, America the will, to make a move. We need a new set of convictions which spring naturally from a candid examination of our own inner feelings in relation to the outside facts.”

Above, Keynes pointed out the absurd phenomena in 80 years ago, the public were being impacted by something without reasonable ground or something that legitimacy have been lost long time ago.

Clearly, the intention of Keynes was toward broad scope beyond economics. In fact, it still is the common phenomenon even more severe in today, in the 80 years later. Please look around, there are many things have lost the real reasons of existence, the reasons have solemnly entered their graves after completed their missions in long time ago, but they are still alive and still a strong influence on our daily life, or even determine our destiny. For example, today, the original motivations of some constitutions’ establishing were gone away for a long time, and the objective circumstances for making those constitutions have entirely changed already, however, those constitutions have still been used to suppress public will and even harm public interest without any modification.

We should question that whether we are too ignorant or stupid, so that we honestly accepts the control of something died already. Why do those dead doctrines not rot and still alive triumphantly? How do their vitality being well maintained? The only reason is that some people need them and continue to make them in fancy-dressing to deceive us believing those doctrines still alive. All in all, although the lives of those doctrines had long been ended, but they cannot sleep in their grave as they should be. They are being used to control public, both spiritual and material with achieving the conspiring objectives of the small group people.

Though the General Theory has been guiding our economic life and to have greatly contributed to human material civilization since it was born, however, some of economic problems we are facing today seem to be out of Keynes’ foreseen, so that we cannot find pre-designed formula for solving all of today’s economical problems, which is being expected by the people who could only follow in a old rut rigidly because they are neither the talent nor the courage to deviate from a road that is increasingly narrowing, such as, an economic formula that could help us to control the fiscal deficit into a reasonable level in the process of stimulating the economic growth by increasing the budget deficit endlessly. It has reached terrible level in many countries not only in U.S...

Facing the Financial Crisis of 2007–2010, it said that it was only next to Great Depression in severity, the economic tools that Keynes left to us seem to have all been used, but the effect seems less obvious than that of in solving the Great Depression. So, some people may ask that, is the brilliant of Keynes’ thought fading?

It is absolutely not. Today, the development of economy has far exceeded the expectations of Keynes. Compared with that of in 1930, the volume of world economy and stock market has increased great many times with many uncontrollable and although are controllable but not well controlled factors are acting as terrible specter in harming with the economy.

On the other hand, the instruments of Government intervention in the economy proposed by Keynes was mainly by guidance and stimulus without the restrictions, it is not enough for the unreasonable components in nowadays market, such as, huge amount of international hot money that was considered to had triggered 1997 Asian financial crisis, and the newly developed irrational financial instruments – derivatives that was considered to be an important trigger of the Financial Crisis of 2007–2010. They are the terrible threats to trigger more economic disaster and are what we must properly regulate but hardly strive in today.

Although Keynes did not left formulas that are suitable for solving the problems in today’s economy, but he left us with a universal formula that is his most shining part of his thought – the shining core, a core that implied but clearly being indicated in

Keynes’ spirit of doubt and question against old doctrines possesses universal significance. Only after breaking the shackles of traditional, the wings of imagination could be expanded to fly freely in the expanse of the sky. Only after breaking the constraint of dogmatism, the gate of free thinking could be opened; the effective solutions would be produced and any thorny problems could be solved at present and in future.

The progress of human civilization in the wealth of ideological and spiritual is important than that of in the wealth of material. Without the guidance of the correct philosophy, human being would never be able to enjoy true material civilization. Human would never get rid of the fatuity or the nature of the beast, looting and killing, endlessly making the disasters with advanced skill to do these indirectly in bloodless but more powerful. Therefore, in

Keynes is very different with us ordinary people. He is sober and methodical when most of us are drowsy or panic. He has seemed to stand on the height of three-dimensional with the eyes as eagle’s to observe us who like ants to strive for essential daily livings, even fighting each other in a two-dimensional world. His main concern was how to protect us to be able to long-term enjoy life without disturbing.

Compared with Keynes, we would be aware the reason, the reasons that we are just blindly being believed rather than brainy self-convinced, the reason that we always blindly follow others and being manipulated, the reason that we can not control self destiny, and always act as a victim exposed to the front of any disasters that most of them were man-made.

Keynes might have foreseen that the market running under entirely free does not work, sooner or later would make trouble. When people are still scheming, with a variety of sounds reasonable grounds to maintain the free market economy, Keynes had prepared ahead. He was doing preparation in public ideology. Perhaps because of his early thoughts on the government intervention of the economy was not being ideally implemented, or there are necessary to intensify. Because he was clearly aware that, in the most of cases, for doing some things, the greatest resistance comes from the public conservative consciousness, from the shackles of traditionalblind faith, blind worship, blind superstition and some dogmatic bias. The most difficult task firstly is to break down those bondages. Therefore, it is the choice that should do or should not do? Dared do or dared not do? It is the why rather than the how. It is just like Keynes indicated in the last paragraph, “The next step forward must come, not from political agitation or premature experiments, but from thought.”

The review for Keynes will stop here. You may ask that what the contribution of President Roosevelt is? So next I must clarify the relationship between him and Keynes.

But in the West advocated individualistic Free World; a world wrongfully emphasizes and protects selfishness without collective sense; so that human greed legally dominates the running of society; so that Neoliberalism goes popular and made disaster endlessly. Please look at the banks closures in crazy Free World advocator countries in 2023 right now.

Neoliberalism making over developed financial economy makes disasters

2013, American economist, Professor Robert Reich distills the story through the lens of widening income inequality to have presented documentary film Inequality for All. Below are the video screen-shots from the film of Inequality for All.

Income-Inequality-Graph-from-Robert-Reichs-New-Film.png

The two times economic crashes well match the peak point of income inequality at in 1928 and 2007. From the peaks of top 1% income share or relative financial wages, we can easily speculate the huge volume of financial economy or paper economy that is buying and selling on the financial markets to make money by money, or to make capital by capital; and nowadays the operation is as easy as a finger click to drive large amount hot money that is able to easily destroy the financial system to bankrupt a country. But usually; which are the demons living on plundering on real economy to make the profit margin of real economy too narrow to survive.

Please see the eager feature of professor Robert Reich above I specially put there; the despaired appeal of perfectly humanized professor is futile, the greed and evil driven economic development drowns out the voice of the professor and the economy continuously flying on own path of making evil and disaster for human beings; under European looting and killing bloody soil based Western Individualistic Civilization that legally encouraging tops individual interest on national interest as proud of values, justice and human rights as the foundation in supporting the so called Free World; a world in which the elements facilitate low quality people free exertion to ruin human world.

It is that the looting and killing inhuman soiled inhuman individualistic civilization supports its cultured individualistic low quality people freely exerting their sick mentality to make disasters for human beings.

Below was translated from the Mandarin commentary of CCTV 10 episodes' documentary - The Power of Company, and here is the link of the documentay https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ka2Vhh3IPVs&t=1424s 

Stephen Field served as associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court from 1863 to 1897 and the second longest serving justice in the history of the Supreme Court. Field consistently upheld the interests of business, he once said that almost all of the businesses that require substantial capital are organized as corporations to feed and clothe our people, beautify their homes, alleviate the suffering of disease, relieve the needy, and enable us to live affluent lives at the same time, also with noble sentiments, none other than the company.

But the inborn greedy nature of human beings has been misuse of corporations in making disasters as incurable social diseases until this day.

In 1800s, the tragic life of labors forced Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels leading communist movement

In 1800s, in Europe, Karl Marx and his friend Friedrich Engels with own humanized idea Communism - contributes what oneself can contribute and takes what oneself needs; began to cure social diseases from wild developed companies – Capitalism. The idea Communism of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels were inspired by the tragic life of labors in the earlier stage of British industrial revolution.

In 1700s, Britain was industrialization at first. At that time, a large number of farmers left their farmland into cities, so that the supply of labor exceeded the demand. Due to the harsh working environment, industrial accidents occur frequently with a large number of work-related injuries; even the death was not compensated. The situation of workers was tragic.

In 1845, Engels wrote The Condition of the Working Class in England: workers are seen as living tools, poverty is seen as a personal matter, unemployment is even considered to be detrimental to economic development, and therefore, wages are kept to a minimum, thereby reducing the costs of the production.

The tragedies inspired Karl Marx to think about the greed of capital: "With adequate profit, capital is very bold. A certain 10 per cent. will ensure its employment anywhere; 20 per cent. certain will produce eagerness; 50 per cent., positive audacity; 100 per cent. will make it ready to trample on all human laws; 300 per cent., and there is not a crime at which it will scruple, nor a risk it will not run, even to the chance of its owner being hanged. If turbulence and strife will bring a profit, it will freely encourage both. Smuggling and the slave-trade have amply proved all that is here stated.”

Later it triggered century of communist movement and more than 70 years of Soviet-led socialist practice.

The origin of the planned economy or state -owned economy or state capitalism

In 1998, Daniel Yergin and Joseph Stanislaw published book The Commanding Heights: The Battle Between Government and the Marketplace.

The book indicates that within a few years of the rise of the Russian Revolution, the Soviet economy went into a major crisis. Lenin responded with the New Economic Policy, a program that allowed limited capitalistic activity, which resulted in what he would call state capitalism, and the economy began to improve. 

Under Joseph Stalin, the Soviet agricultural and heavy manufacturing sectors were largely centralized. During the 1940s to the 1970s, the Soviet economy grew at a rate that outpaced that of Western European nations.

The political persecution of McCarthyism in the US and Stalin reigns in former Soviet Union

The ideologies are the lethal poison for human society.

In 1992, was excited by the end of Cold Wall with the pushing down of Berlin Wall, political scientist, Dr. Francis Fukuyama who argued that is the end-point of mankind's ideological evolution and the universaliation of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government. However, in 22 years later 2014, after enjoyed childish play of the “final form of human government”, Dr. Francis Fukuyama who was despaired to write America in Decay was “no way out”.

As my view; the clash of civilization is the clash between different ideologies; it will be endless ongoing. The Berlin Wall is a visible wall of the ideologies; the pushing down of visible wall of the ideologies is easy; but the invisible wall of ideologies can never be removed; because of that is build up in people’s mind and in endlessly renewing.

The lethal poison for human society is nothing else; but it is the ideologies that derived from European looting and killing based culture.

The Communist movement led by Marx and Engels swept the world, and many capitalist countries were thrilling to keep their lives. Communism made them always in fear.

Since then, the ideologies of Communism, or Capitalism and state owned planned economy or private owned market economy have been ideologically played in the manic state as that of psychotic attack. 

In the United States; it caused political persecution of the McCarthyism for fighting against Communism and in former Soviet Union; it caused the political persecution for fighting against Capitalism when the Stalin reigns.

In 1865, Abraham Lincoln warns that money powered group will lead the demise of the United States

Meantime, in the United Sates, in 1865, President Abraham Lincoln who worried about the expansion of company rights; at the end of his life; he said that the company has been over hailed, and the corruption in high-level will come. The money powered group will try to extend its rule by indoctrinating the mind of people by fabrication prejudice or preconceived idea until the wealth is accumulated a certain extent in the hands of some people, they will lead to the demise of the United States of America.

As same as in Britain, in the United Sates, between 1888 and 1908, industrial accidents killed more than 700,000 workers and killed about 100 people every day. In 1901, there one of 26 railway worker was injured, and one out of every 399 people died. The death was without any compensation at that time.

On July 4, 1894, it was on the National Day of the United States, in Chicago, it was not only did not hold a celebration, but instead, the federal army carrying Green-type machine guns killed 13 of 125,000 railway workers who were on strike.

Lawyer Clarence Darrow who witnessed the scene and was shocked: human blood sprinkled on the largest slaughterhouse in the United States, and which caused him deep suspicion that freedom and equality were just a principle written on paper? Does the company have some kind of privilege?

He decided to defend the arrested workers' leaders. He resigned as a lawyer for the Northwest Railway Company that everyone envied. Joined the workers, due to his successful defense, the leaders of the railway union were eventually sentenced to six months in prison.

In May 1902, there 150,000 miners in the western Anthracite Coal Mine of the United States went on strike, demanding an increase in wages and recognition of the legal status of the union, which triggered the most serious industrial crisis in American history, until October, the both sides were still in a stalemate.

In order to mediate the strike, President Theodore Roosevelt authorized the formation of the Arbitration Commission, and as well-known lawyer for defending railroad workers, Clarence Darrow was also among them.

Clarence Darrow asked the company to take the accounts to the court to make it clear. This was the first time that an unconstrained American company has been supervised by public opinion.

Mr. Clarence Darrow profoundly understands the meaning of poverty for life. In such concern, he once wrote a short story called "The Boy on the Mine", by which tells a poverty ruined child.

In February 1903, the Americans heard such a defense: If the civilization of this country is maintained by the hungry of miners and laborers, and by teenager children picking up coal in the dusty anthracite coal mines; the sooner we end this civilization, the sooner we start a new civilization, the better it will be for humanity.

In terms of how to start a new civilization, Clarence Darrow said in the opening remarks: On the way to here, I determined to make every effort to make the employers and employees no longer hate each other.

On March 21, 1903, the verdict was announced: the daily working hours of workers were shortened to 9 hours and a 10% salary increase was obtained.

Today; Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels and their idea Communism have long been condemned as evil demons by true demons; for greed; they demonized humanized people and their humanized thoughts as demons.

The communist society that truly belongs to higher animals of human beings has been vilified into evil by the money powered group; in contrast, the evil making Capitalism has been beautified as human savior. By developing increasingly powerful financial instruments, capital is freely plundering on real economy, which is in brainlessly destroying the manufacturers in production of material wealth - the cornerstone on which humans depend for survival.

For a long time, the prediction of the most great President Abraham Lincoln has been the reality, the corruption in high-level has been actively playing their evil role. The money powered group has reached their purpose by influencing the prejudice or preconceived idea of people, thereby successfully extends their demons’ ruling.

However, the money powered group did not make the demise of the United States, but, they have demonized it as Demon Fortress as a mother place of endlessly nurturing the evil greedy demons, which is more evil than that of the demise by making it as the source of the evil in the world today; such as, by developing financial economy plunders real economy, by endlessly innovations of toxic financial instruments loot the wealth of public......

Such as, March 14, 2023 , the dailymail.co.uk reports that REVEALED: Only ONE member of failed Silicon Valley Bank's board had a career in investment banking - and the rest were Obama, Clinton mega-donors who 'grieved' when Trump won including one who went to Shinto shrine 'to pray'.

Also, the collapse of Silicon Valley Bank was tied to raising interest rates to curb inflation. As my view, that raising interest rates should be precise selectively, for specific industries should also cut interest rates, for example, real economy, manufacturing, agriculture and first home buyer.

Talks to here; I would like to say that, maybe the economist John Keynes himself had not aware that his greatest contribution is not in the development of the macroeconomics; but it is in the correction of the fatal confusion of human thoughts by The end of laissez-faire 1926; in which he indicated the fatal weakness in the human intelligence; it is that human thoughts are always abducted by outdated stuff that is harmful for contemporary life.

In 95 years ago; Keynes indicates that “These many elements have contributed to the current intellectual bias, the mental make-up, the orthodoxy of the day. The compelling force of many of the original reasons has disappeared but, as usual, the vitality of the conclusions outlasts them.” “Confusion of thought and feeling leads to confusion of speech.” “The next step forward must come, not from political agitation or premature experiments, but from thought. We need by an effort of the mind to elucidate our own feelings. ”

In 95 years ago; Keynes disappointed said that “To suggest social action for the public good to the City of London is like discussing the Origin of Species with a bishop sixty years ago. The first reaction is not intellectual, but moral. An orthodoxy is in question, and the more persuasive the arguments the graver the offence. Nevertheless, venturing into the den of the lethargic monster, at any rate I have traced his claims and pedigree so as to show that he has ruled over us rather by hereditary right than by personal merit.”

Now, I would like to make a conclusion that the most of manmade disasters in human history were derived from the confusion in thoughts or ideology; it is that those money powered group purposefully misuse or fabricate toxic ideologies to dehumanize the quality of people in sick cognitive function; so that they take stupid as smart; and believe bad as good to support the money powered group ruining life.

From above you will understand that the government of China touch-ups the Internet Giants was not due to that "the richest members of China’s National People’s Congress have amassed more wealth than every branch of American government combined"; but due to the Internet Giants use financial instruments for profiting, without aware that the financial instrument is the arm of government in regulating the healthy development of economy; the over private use of financial instrument is in cutting off the arm of government for controlling economy.

In the countries that allowing political contributions are in facilitating the money powered group driving government to deliberately create human disasters.

Now people may want to know that why as the birthplace of laissez-faire of the mother of Capitalism; China did not make the tragedies as that of in the Europe and the United States; everything comes from humanized social governance by selecting humanized people in humanized manner performing social governance.

Here is a good example; August 2012, Shanghai Pudong Development Bank and Silicon Valley Bank jointly established SPD Silicon Valley Bank China. In view of the bankruptcy of Silicon Valley Bank US, on March 11, 2023, SPD Silicon Valley Bank China specially announced that the bank has been operation strictly following the laws and regulations of China, with a standardized corporate governance structure and an independent balance sheet; which means that the bankruptcy of Silicon Valley Bank US cannot affect the operation of SPD Silicon Valley Bank China.

From the announcement of SPD Silicon Valley Bank China; we may get the feeling of  that; before the U.S. bank crisis, the bankers in China would hate the strict supervision of the government of China. However, the strict supervision has helped them to avoid operational crises, and now they are grateful and thank for the strict supervision of the government of China; and proudly declare our operation is safe.

The root reason of all these lies in the difference between Chinese culture and American culture; and which result in the difference in the social governance concept and the governance practice.

May 4, 2021, the founder and co-chairman of Bridgewater Associates, Ray Dalio, who revealed the radical difference in social governance between China and the United States by article Changing World Order, Where We Are and Where we're Going; in which, he pointed out the philosophical; legal, moral and ideological roots of the humanized civilization of China. I copy some sections as below.

Ray Dalio said that all of these Chinese systems from the beginning of recorded history were hierarchical and non-egalitarian. I was told by one of the most senior Chinese leaders, who is also a highly informed historian and an extremely practical top policy maker, that the core difference between Americans and the Chinese is that Americans put the individual above all else and the Chinese put the family and the collective above all else. He explained that Chinese leaders seek to run the country the way they think parents should run the family—from the top down, maintaining high standards of behavior, putting the collective interest ahead of any individual interest, with each person knowing their place and having filial respect for those in the hierarchy so that the system works in an orderly way.

Ray Dalio said that the Chinese leader explained that the word "country" consists of two characters, "state" and "family," which represents how the leaders view their roles in looking after their state/family—like strict parents. So one might say that the Chinese government is run from the top down (like a family) and optimizes for the collective while the American approach is run from the bottom up (e.g., democracy) and optimizes for the individual. (These differences of approach can lead to policies that those on the opposite side find objectionable, which I will explore in more detail in the next chapter.)

This is the reason that historically, the people of China lived a relative longer peaceful prosperous life with old and new Silk Road provides the West with life necessaries; while the West has been in looting and killing until today right now.

Humans are inborn selfish animals; the selfish instinct is the driving force for humans seeking survival, and which derived social activities are the basic forces in driving the development of economy to support the existance of society; without human selfish instinct without human society. However human selfish behaviors often conflict with social collective interests in harming society.

On Earth has no desired governing model; a governing model that is able to contain war and plunder and therefore create people a relative peaceful life is a best governing model. The West advocated Free World sounds good; but the social effect is in the opposite by facilitating bad people harming good people.

No looting and killing is the minimum standard for human beings; human government and human civilization.

The root cause for the West has been playing in beast way is at that their social elements were designed for being able to enjoy the stuffs that were unable to be enjoyed when the European looting and killing based inhuman rule with a mixture of aristocracy and religion; so that the social elements today in the West with inhuman genes; which is not suitable for human life.

The tragedy of Western civilization lies in its unquestionable deceit, everything looks and sounds in perfect making sense and perfect humanized, however, the good ideas cannot cope with the complexity of human nature, and the result is precisely evil; due to that people are inborn selfish instinct and tend to do according to own preferred accord and are good at use of public instruments for private purpose.

As the leading politician of the Liberal Democratic Government; the rational practice of Chrystia Freeland has been demostrating in many fields.

In Oct. 5, 2015, article Making politics more inclusive reports that in the Inequality Debate: Time to build prosperity for all, Opinion Oct. 2, in commentary, Chrystia Freeland opines: “We are living in an age of winner-take-all economic forces. But ultimately our communities will thrive and our overall economy will grow only if we can harness them and create inclusive prosperity.”

The rational views of Chrystia Freeland revealed the root cause that higher animals - human beings has been living in Law of Jungle of the way of lower animals and increasingly unlivable; it is minority of greedy Plutocrats in hijacking the  power of State Apparatus to coerce the majority of people going to play in lower animals’ way.

In Apr. 6, 2016, I once wrote article Chrystia Freeland, a capable Minister of International Trade of Canada and indicate that the views showed personal quality of Ms. Chrystia Freeland - rational, foresight and sagacity; which encouraged me to search more about her and was further moved.

Ms. Chrystia Freeland has a background of Russian history and literature from Harvard University and Slavonic Studies from University of Oxford as a Rhodes Scholar. She once worked as a stringer for the Financial Times, The Washington Post, The Economist, and as an editor for Financial Times, while respectively worked in Ukraine, Russia and Britain.

As a winner of Rhodes Scholar that was difficult to win showed her quality in innate talent and acquired diligence, which are the essential base as capable person.

The studies on Russian history and Slavic will help her accumulation of historical experiences and lessons of social governance in-depth understanding. The journalism career certainly made her deeply watched and thought the complex social issues, especially, the financial and economic related in observation and analysis of the real-time financial and economic problems; such useful experiences provided her more practical knowledge and experiences, and thereby enabled her unique ability in rationally dealing with related social problems.

The accumulation of the knowledge and experiences is wisdom, since that knowledge and experiences provide references for a perfect reasoning; it is the prerequisites for making a rational judgment, thereby making correct practice.

My comment above is based on the human nature biologically and physiologically.

July 26, 2014, in the article Recruit employee by the quality of brain not the academic degree, I indicate that: Recent years, scientists have learnt more clearly about human brain structure and work mechanism. Our brain is an extraordinarily complex organ that is made up of many different structures. Any of human behaviors is dominated by the specific population of cells in the brain. More evidences have showed that various mental disorders are connected with abnormality or atrophy in brain.

The wide range of studies and social experiences will perfect brain in the structure, and the more memorizing of the experiences for the successes or failures will provide more references for perfect reasoning with more perfect decision making.

It is that more in success, less in mistake and perfect predictability made a person as wise.

The wisdom of a wise depends on the memorized contents in the brain. A wise must be a socially responsible person at first.

If a person is lack of social experiences and extensive reading, the person will fall into as that of watching sky by sitting in the bottom of a deep well, which will largely narrow the field of the vision, and thereby limit the scope and the depth of the thinking. Thus, when faced with intractable social problems, the person cannot flexibility come up with feasible solutions. It will be more harmful for those who are on the key position of the government.

The rich knowledge and experiences of Ms. Chrystia Freeland will help her be able to make rational judgments with more feasible new ideas for social governance, especially in today's extremely difficult international and domestic economic environment, which need more groundbreaking innovations in the approaches for social governance.

In particular, the knowledge and experiences in cross-countries will make her less ethnic and political prejudices. Without such interference under ignorance, she was able to seize the key of the issues and be able to effectively solving thorny social problems.

More importantly, she is full of sense of social responsibility, which showed from her book - Plutocrats: The Rise of the New Global Super Rich in talking about social polarization.

The position of government officials involved in well develop national economy and which deciding the livelihoods of mortal beings, it requires a minimum of experience and theoretical basis, rather than being considered as a means to earn a living by a individual who is with only quality that how to please the voters and how to enjoy the political privilege.

Canada needs more officials as Ms. Chrystia Freeland.

The fact that Ms. Chrystia Freeland was appointed as the Minister of International Trade, a key position in the government, showed the rational of new Prime Minister Justin Trudeau.

But under childish liberal democracy, the rational Chrystia Freeland cannot play her rational role. In 2019, an article reports that Chrystia Freeland said Liberal democracies are being "hijacked by angry populist politicians: "the doubts creeping in inside liberal democracy… liberal democracies that are becoming totally polarized societies, divided into these hostile – even warring – tribes who can’t talk to each other, and societies that have been hijacked by angry populist politicians.” Freeland said this theme exists in the “unhappy liberal democracies,” where “the details may be unique but the basic storyline is the same.”

For a long time, there have been voices at home and abroad, condemning China's reforms for stagnation or even retrogression. However, there is no mention of how to reform. Obviously, these bastards have always hoped that China will follow the example of the beasts in the West and liberalize politically and economically, so that these mentally retarded people can play around like a fish in own favorate water at the exchanges of damaging the life of people of China.

Plutocrats: The Rise of the New Global Super-Rich and the Fall of Everyone Else 

By Chrystia Freeland, the deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Finance, Oct. 11 2012

https://www.amazon.ca/Plutocrats-Rise-Global-Super-Rich-Everyone/dp/1594204098 

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A Financial Times Best Book of the Year

Winner of the 2013 Lionel Gelber Prize

There has always been some gap between rich and poor in this country, but in the last few decades what it means to be rich has changed dramatically. Alarmingly, the greatest income gap is not between the 1 percent and the 99 percent, but within the wealthiest 1 percent of our nation--as the merely wealthy are left behind by the rapidly expanding fortunes of the new global super-rich. Forget the 1 percent; Plutocrats proves that it is the wealthiest 0.1 percent who are outpacing the rest of us at break-neck speed.

What’s changed is more than numbers. Today, most colossal fortunes are new, not inherited--amassed by perceptive businessmen who see themselves as deserving victors in a cut-throat international competition. As a transglobal class of successful professionals, today’s self-made oligarchs often feel they have more in common with one another than with their countrymen back home. Bringing together the economics and psychology of these new super-rich, Plutocrats puts us inside a league very much of its own, with its own rules.

The closest mirror to our own time is the late nineteenth century Gilded Age--the era of powerful ‘robber barons’ like Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeller. Then as now, emerging markets and innovative technologies collided to produce unprecedented wealth for more people than ever in human history. Yet those at the very top benefited far more than others--and from this pinnacle they exercised immense and unchecked power in their countries. Today’s closest analogue to these robber barons can be found in the turbulent economies of India, Brazil, and China, all home to ferocious market competition and political turmoil. But wealth, corruption, and populism are no longer constrained by national borders, so this new Gilded Age is already transforming the economics of the West as well. Plutocrats demonstrates how  social upheavals generated by the first Gilded Age may pale in comparison to what is in store for us, as the wealth of the entire globalized world is concentrated in fewer and fewer hands.

Cracking open the tight-knit world of the new global super-rich is Chrystia Freeland, an acclaimed business journalist who has spent nearly two decades reporting on the new transglobal elite. She parses an internal Citigroup memo that urges clients to design portfolios around the international “Plutonomy” and not the national “rest”; follows Russian, Mexican, and Indian oligarchs during the privatization boom as they manipulate the levers of power to commandeer their local economies; breaks down the gender divide between the vast female-managed ‘middle class’ and the world’s one thousand billionaires; shows how, by controlling both the economic and political institutions of their nation, the richest members of China’s National People’s Congress have amassed more wealth than every branch of American government combined--the president, his cabinet, the justices of the Supreme Court, and both houses of Congress.

Though the results can be shocking, Freeland dissects the lives of the world’s wealthiest individuals with empathy, intelligence, and deep insight. Brightly written, powerfully researched, and propelled by fascinating original interviews with the plutocrats themselves, Plutocrats is a tour-de-force of social and economic history, and the definitive examination of inequality in our time.

这个国家的贫富差距一直存在,但在过去的几十年里,富裕的含义发生了巨大变化。 令人担忧的是,最大的收入差距不是在 1% 和 99% 之间,而是在我们国家最富有的 1% 之内——因为全球新兴超级富豪的财富迅速膨胀,将仅有的富人甩在了后面。 忘记那百分之一; 富豪们证明,最富有的 0.1% 正在以极快的速度超越我们其他人。

改变的不仅仅是数字。 今天,大多数巨额财富都是新的,而不是继承的——由敏锐的商人积累起来,他们认为自己是在激烈的国际竞争中当之无愧的胜利者。 作为成功专业人士的跨国阶层,今天白手起家的寡头们常常觉得他们彼此之间的共同点多于与本国同胞之间的共同点。 Plutocrats 将这些新超级富豪的经济学和心理学结合在一起,将我们置于一个非常独特的联盟中,有自己的规则。

与我们这个时代最接近的镜子是 19 世纪晚期的镀金时代——安德鲁·卡内基和约翰·洛克菲勒等强大的“强盗大亨”时代。 当时和现在一样,新兴市场和创新技术相互碰撞,为人类历史上前所未有的更多人创造了前所未有的财富。 然而,那些处于最顶层的人比其他人受益更多——他们从这个顶峰在他们的国家行使着巨大的、不受限制的权力。 在印度、巴西和中国这些动荡的经济体中可以找到与这些强盗大亨最接近的类比,它们都是激烈的市场竞争和政治动荡的发源地。 但财富、腐败和民粹主义不再受国界限制,因此这个新的镀金时代也已经在改变西方的经济。 Plutocrats 展示了第一个镀金时代产生的社会动荡与我们即将发生的事情相比可能显得苍白无力,因为整个全球化世界的财富集中在越来越少的人手中。

克里斯蒂娅·弗里兰 (Chrystia Freeland) 打破了全球新兴超级富豪紧密联系的世界,她是一位备受赞誉的商业记者,近 20 年来一直在报道新兴的跨国精英。 她分析了花旗集团的一份内部备忘录,该备忘录敦促客户围绕国际“Plutonomy”而非国家“休息”设计投资组合; 跟随俄罗斯、墨西哥和印度寡头在私有化热潮中操纵权力杠杆来支配当地经济; 打破广大女性管理的“中产阶级”与全球一千名亿万富翁之间的性别鸿沟; 展示了通过控制国家的经济和政治机构,中国全国人民代表大会最富有的成员如何积累了比美国政府每个部门——总统、他的内阁、最高法院的法官,以及 国会两院。

尽管结果可能令人震惊,但弗里兰以同理心、智慧和深刻的洞察力剖析了世界上最富有的人的生活。 文笔优美,研究有力,并受到对富豪们的精彩原创采访的推动,富豪们是一部社会和经济史的杰作,也是对我们时代不平等现象的权威考察。


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