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莫言诺奖颁奖词中文译法商榷 2019-10-11 14:26:29

莫言诺奖颁奖词中文译法商榷
【转发者按语】
最近在中宣部的嘉奖名单中没有莫言的名字(被嘉奖的作家是王蒙)。随后在国内的网络和微信上掀起一股毛左们声讨莫言的浪潮。最近又有人翻出当年瑞典的诺奖委员会主席的颁奖词。对于这个颁奖词人们有不同的解读,有人认为这说明莫言是敢讲真话的人,也有的认为这是莫言当汉奸卖国贼的证据。目前 网上流传的翻译件,可能是翻译者处于某种顾忌,隐去了一些敏感词。今天发现了一篇声称忠实于原文的翻译件,转发给大家参考。

莫言诺奖颁奖词中文译法商榷

王澄 (博讯2012年12月23日 )

瑞典文学院诺奖委员会主席瓦斯特伯格发表的颁奖词Award Ceremony Speech可以算作这一阶段“莫言事件”的一个惊叹号,也是一个句号。
      ……    
    我把这个颁奖词重新译出,也希望懂瑞典文的华人能以瑞典文版本(原本)再加以修改。
    译文和注释如下:
    Presentation Speech by Per Wstberg, Writer, Member of the Swedish Academy, Chairman of the Nobel Committee, 10 December 2012.
    
   
 瑞典文学院诺奖委员会主席瓦斯特伯格颁奖词:
    
    尊敬的国王和皇后陛下,尊敬的诺贝尔奖得主们,女士们先生们,
    Your Majesties, Your Royal Highnesses, Esteemed Nobel Laureates, Ladies and Gentlemen,
    
    莫言是个诗人。他扯下了中共那些千篇一律的表面宣传,使一个个他笔下的人物从芸芸众生中生动地显现出来。 他用嘲笑和尖锐讽刺的笔触,抨击了一个荒谬的中国近代历史,那是一个人民生活和思想贫乏,政治制度虚伪的时代。莫言手法娴熟,由着一吐为快的性格,好像在“不经意”中把最富有代表性的东西形象地表达出来。用这些手段,莫言揭露了人类社会最阴暗的一面。

Mo Yan is a poet who tears down stereotypical propaganda posters, elevating the individual from an anonymous human mass. Using ridicule and sarcasm Mo Yan attacks history and its falsifications as well as deprivation and political hypocrisy. Playfully and with ill-disguised delight, he reveals the murkiest aspects of human existence, almost inadvertently finding images of strong symbolic weight.
    [译注:stereotype:a simplified and standardized conception or image。politic有城邦管理,政治体制的意思。(亚里士多德)]
    
    高密东北乡有中国民间故事,高密的历史也是中国人的历史。在莫言笔下,几乎没有外人来过的高密,那里驴与猪的叫声盖过了村里党支书的声音。在那里,无论是善良还是邪恶都被赋予了超越自然的力量。
    
    North-eastern Gaomi county embodies China’s folk tales and history. Few real journeys can surpass these to a realm where the clamour of donkeys and pigs drowns out the voices of the people’s commissars and where both love and evil assume supernatural proportions.
    [译注:people’s commissars “人民委员”,指苏共和中共的干部]
    
    莫言让他的想象力穿越整个现实社会。他惟妙惟肖地描绘了人的本性。他几乎知晓所有中国人过去挨饿的事情。或许,从来没有人像莫言那样如此直白地描写了20世纪的野蛮人中国。这种野蛮通过他笔下的人物---有英雄,情侣,(施)暴力(者),匪徒,还有特别坚强的永不屈服的母亲们---向我们一一展现出来。那是一个既没有真理,又没有常识,更没有同情心的野蛮人世界,活在那个世界中的人是多么鲁莽,渺小,荒唐。
    
    Mo Yan’s imagination soars across the entire human existence. He is a wonderful portrayer of nature; he knows virtually all there is to know about hunger, and the brutality of China’s 20th century has probably never been described so nakedly, with heroes, lovers, torturers, bandits – and especially, strong, indomitable mothers. He shows us a world without truth, common sense or compassion, a world where people are reckless, helpless and absurd.
    [译注:nature 本性。helpless和强大的国家机器比,农民显得非常渺小。]
    
    人相食的悲剧在中国历史上重复出现。对莫言来说,人相食的故事反映了中国人没有任何道德约束,居然连人肉都敢吃。中国人没有节制的消费和浪费,只剩下低级动物的快感和混沌的欲望。也只有莫言才敢突破禁区对此大加描写。
    
    Proof of this misery is the cannibalism that recurs in China’s history. In Mo Yan, it stands for unrestrained consumption, excess, rubbish, carnal pleasures and the indescribable desires that only he can attempt to elucidate beyond all tabooed limitations.
    [译注:unrestrained consumption, excess:失去道德的约束,什么都敢吃。rubbish 浪费。]
    [注:这一段为下一段作准备。]
    
    在小说《酒国》中,最精致的佳肴是烧烤三岁男童。男童沦为食物,而女童因为被岐视得以幸存,女孩连被吃的资格都没有。这是对中国计划生育政策的嘲讽,因为计划生育,无以计数的女胎被堕胎。莫言写了一本小说《蛙》讲计划生育的事。
    
    In his novel Republic of Wine, the most exquisite of delicacies is a roasted three-year-old. Boys have become exclusive foodstuff. The girls, neglected, survive. The irony is directed at China’s family policy, because of which female foetuses are aborted on an astronomic scale: girls aren’t even good enough to eat. Mo Yan has written an entire novel, Frog, about this.
    
    莫言的故事有着神秘和寓意的内涵,他笔下人物的价值观完全颠倒。在他描写的中国社会中,毛泽东时代完美“工农兵高大形象”根本就不存在。莫言笔下的农民充满活力,农民们甚至用最不道德的手段达到他们的生活目标,并试图打破束缚他们的命运和政治牢笼。
    
    Mo Yan’s stories have mythical and allegorical pretensions and turn all values on their heads.We never meet that ideal citizen who was a standard feature in Mao’s China. Mo Yan’s characters bubble with vitality and take even the most amoral steps and measures to fulfil their lives and burst the cages they have been confined in by fate and politics.
    [译注:turn all value on their heads 所有的价值观被颠倒。ideal citizen工农兵高大形象。]
    
    与共产党一贯的假话“人民生活幸福”宣传不同,莫言使用夸张,嘲弄,和用神话和民间故事里的内容来描写“新中国”的历史。莫言说的才是真的,是对中国共产党五十多年来的宣传谎言的有力抨击。
    
    Instead of communism’s poster-happy history, Mo Yan describes a past that, with his exaggerations, parodies and derivations from myths and folk tales, is a convincing and scathing revision of fifty years of propaganda.
    [译注:communism在这里指信仰共产主义的人(共产党)。在整个文章中,作者试图避免使用Chinese Communist Party。past 指fifty years of propaganda 就是“新中国”五十年的谎话宣传。Derivation from myths and folk tales 从神话和民间故事中得到。]
    
    《丰乳肥臀》是莫言最著名的小说,以女性视角描述了1960年的大跃进和大饥荒。以其牟利的笔锋,莫言讥讽了当时开展的前所未有的“科学实验”,用兔子给羊受精。那个时候,被排斥的右派分子对这个“科学实验”持怀疑态度。小说的结尾描述了九十年代的中国新资本主义社会,那些会忽悠的人靠卖丰乳产品富了起来,并想通过混种受精培育凤凰。
    
    In his most remarkable novel, Big Breasts and Wide Hips, where a female perspective dominates, Mo Yan describes the Great Leap Forward and the Great Famine of 1960 in stinging detail. He mocks the revolutionary pseudo-science that tried to inseminate sheep with rabbit sperm, all the while dismissing doubters as right-wing elements. The novel ends with the new capitalism of the ‘90s with fraudsters becoming rich on beauty products and trying to produce a Phoenix through cross-fertilisation.
    [注:right-wing elements右派分子)]
    
    莫言生动地把一个被人遗忘的中国农村社会活生生地,丰富多彩地展现在我们眼前,惊人的残忍伴随着愉悦的无私,每一个瞬间都那么精彩,让读者有身临其境之感。作者知晓手工艺、冶炼技术、建筑、挖沟开渠、放牧和游击队的事,并且知道如何描述。他用笔描述了整个中国农民的生活。
    
    In Mo Yan, a forgotten peasant world arises, alive and well, before our eyes, sensually scented even in its most pungent vapours, startlingly merciless but tinged by joyful selflessness. Never a dull moment. The author knows everything and can describe everything – all kinds of handicraft, smithery, construction, ditch-digging, animal husbandry, the tricks of guerrilla bands. He seems to carry all human life on the tip of his pen.
    [注:sensually scented even in its most pungent vapours感受到其中的丰富多彩]
    
    莫言的作品比那些喜欢模仿拉伯雷,斯威夫特和当今的马尔克斯的多数作家都要搞笑和震撼。语言辛辣是他文学特征。在他对于中国过去一百年的精彩描述中,我们找不到西方幻梦般跳舞的独角兽,也看不到在门前跳方格的天真小女孩,我们看到的是他笔下的中国人猪圈式的生活,中国人的丑陋和残酷让人不忍读下去。意识形态在变化,改革时起时伏,但是人性的自私和贪婪却一直没变。通过他的作品,莫言为在不公正社会下生存的众多小人物发声,这个不公正的社会有日本占领中国那个时期,毛泽东暴政时代,也有今天的物欲横流社会
    
    He is more hilarious and more appalling than most in the wake of Rabelais and Swift — in our time, in the wake of Garcia Marquez. His spice blend is a peppery one. On his broad tapestry of China’s last hundred years, there are neither dancing unicorns nor skipping maidens. But he paints life in a pigsty in such a way that we feel we have been there far too long. Ideologies and reform movements may come and go but human egoism and greed remain. So Mo Yan defends small individuals against all injustices – from Japanese occupation to Maoist terror and today’s production frenzy.
    [译注:skipping maidens 在家门口跳方格的女孩子。We have been there far too long(受不了) 不能再呆下去。all injustices后面跟着三个社会时期,所有可以译成“不公正的社会”。Maoist terror让人想起红卫兵,但是红卫兵的暴行并不是毛时代的全部暴行,所以,应当译成“毛泽东暴政时代 ]
    
    高密那个地方,因为存在着人性的普遍美德和最邪恶的残酷现实之间的剧烈冲突,才会产生文学创作的巨大成果。曾有如此史诗般的喷涌浪潮席卷过中国和世界吗?我们当代人类的文学事业在莫言作品中达到了一个新的高度。
    
    For those who venture to Mo Yan’s home district, where bountiful virtue battles the vilest cruelty, a staggering literary adventure awaits. Has ever such an epic spring flood engulfed China and the rest of the world? In Mo Yan’s work, world literature speaks with a voice that drowns out most contemporaries.
    
    瑞典文学院祝贺你。请你从国王手中接过2012年诺贝尔文学奖。
    
    The Swedish Academy congratulates you. I call on you to accept the 2012 Nobel Prize for Literature from the hand of His Majesty the King.


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