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16 道谛 Path Crux 2024-03-14 19:23:20

四胜谛目录 Contents of Four Cruxes (aka. Four Noble Truths) :苦谛 Bitter Crux集谛 Aggregate Crux灭谛 Salvation Crux;道谛 Path Crux.

道谛的目录 Catalog of Path Crux:16.1 极喜地 Bliss Heartland;16.2 离垢地 Leave Filth Heartland16.3 发光地 Glory Heartland16.4 焰慧地 Flaming Gnosis Heartland16.5 难胜地 Onerous Heartland16.6 现前地 Manifestation Heartland16.7 远行地 Hike Heartland16.8 不动地 Immovability Heartland16.9 善慧地 Benevolent Gnosis Heartland16.10 法云地 Juristic Cloud Heartland.

16.0.1 道谛 Path Crux.jpg

道谛讲通往涅槃的道路。尘世人成佛要经历三大阿僧脂劫。脂是脂肪,是动物抗病害、耐寒、越冬的能量储备,古人用其来指标成佛的福德资本。劫是劫跛、跛脚、颠簸义,古人亦作大时。

Path Crux talks about the path to salvation. For a mortal to become a Buddha, he or she must go through three A Monk Index Catastrophes.  Catastrophe means lame, and bumpy, ancients also considered it as Big Time.

第一阿僧脂劫是从无始以来,到懂得四圣谛的道理后发菩提心(参见下文16.0.2节),登上菩萨初地。菩萨是梵语,义为真人。

The first “A Monk Index Catastrophe” is from beginningless time to when one understands the Four Victorious Cruxes, and arouses Bodhicitta, so aboard the first land of Bodhisattva. Bodhisattva is a Sanskrit word, meaning real human.

第二阿僧脂劫是从发菩提心登上菩萨初地至于第七地。这个阶段的行人常常把自己看做补特伽罗。补特伽罗是梵语,义为习气疙瘩,汉译为竹马(如图16.0.1-13363738),欧洲人亦作独角马(如图16.0.1-35)。

The second “A Monk Index Catastrophe” is from arousing Bodhi Heart, aboard the first land of bodhisattva to the seventh land. Migrators at this stage often think of themselves as a Pudgala. Pudgala is a Sanskrit word meaning a chunk of habits, translated in Chinese as Hobbyhorse (see Figs. 16.0-13, 36, 37, and 38), and also used by Europeans as unicorn (see Fig. 35).

第三阿僧脂劫是从七地菩萨发起金钢喻定,出尘,登第八地成为摩诃萨,以至于第十地,尽未来际。金钢喻定,亦作金钢桥,金刚无间道;行者也可以通过阅读 “到达方舟” 来实现这一功能。摩诃萨是梵语,义为大菩萨,大真人。

The third “A Monk Index Catastrophe” is when the Bodhisattva on the seventh land arouses “Philosopher-Stone Metaphor Stillness”, ousting dusts completely, ascends to the eighth land, and becomes a Mahasattva, up to the tenth land, so on to the exhaustion of time. The “Philosopher-Stone Metaphor Stillness”, also known as the “Philosopher-Stone Bridge”, “Philosopher-Stone Non-Intermittent Path”, “The Big Flood”; readers also can do this by reading the “Arrival Ark".  Mahasattva is a Sanskrit word meaning great bodhisattva, great real human.

简单地说,道谛即菩萨以此十地为依为持,修行十渡,断十重障,证十真如,成就无上正等正觉(梵语是啊褥多罗三藐三菩提)。

To put it simply, Path Crux means that the bodhisattva uses these ten lands as the basis for holding, practicing the ten Arks, breaking the ten hindrances, testifying the ten true suchness, and achieving Non-Upper Correct-Equality Correct-Perception, which in Sanskrit is Anuttara Samyak Sambodhi.

16.0.2 菩提心诵 Bodhicitta Eulogy

修习大乘佛教要求发菩提心。菩提心是无上正等正觉(梵语是啊褥多罗三藐三菩提)。发菩提心就是立下此四宏誓言:众生无边誓愿度;烦恼无尽誓愿断;法门无量誓愿学;佛道无上誓愿成。本文就菩提心诵来简要说明菩提心。

The study and practice of Mahayana Buddhism require the development of bodhicitta. Bodhicitta is “Non-Upper Correct-Equality Correct-Perception”, Sanskrit as Anuttara Samyak Sambodhi. To develop bodhicitta is to make these four great vows: Sentient beings are edgeless, I vow: I ferry them all! Annoyances are endless, I vow I sever them all! Juristic doors are limitless, I vow I study them all! Buddha’s path is non-upper, I vow I endeavour to succeed! This article briefly explains Bodhicitta in terms of the Bodhicitta Eulogy.

16.0.2 道谛 Path Crux.jpg

(一)譬如大地,能生长万物;菩提心亦如是,于一切佛法能生长摄持故。

(二)譬如净金,色质不坏;菩提心亦如是,利益安乐一切有情永无退坏故。

(1) Such as the earth, which can grow all things, so is the bodhicitta, which can grow assimilating and holding all Buddha’s laws.

(2) Such as pure gold, the color of which does not deteriorate, so is bodhicitta, which benefits comforts and pleases all sentient beings without deterioration.

(三)譬如新月,渐增圆明;菩提心亦如是,与勤相应,于一切善法渐渐增长故。

(四)譬如增火,火势炽盛;菩提心亦如是,以智火烧诸烦恼,愈修智力愈胜故。

(3) Such as the new moon, which grows in brightness, so is bodhicitta, which grows in all benevolent laws in accordance with diligence.

(4) Such as the fire that increases in intensity; so is bodhicitta that intelligence burns all annoyances, the more cultivations the intelligence more victorious.

16.0.2-6 Immaculate Precept Ark.jpg

(五)譬如大藏,取物无尽;菩提心亦如是,修行而施波罗蜜多,周济有情亦无尽故。

(六)譬如宝矿,出生种种珍宝;菩提心亦如是,修持净戒波罗蜜多(如图16.0.2-6,参见16.2节),出生种种功德故。

(5) Such as the great treasure, there is no exhaustion to what can be taken; so is bodhicitta, practicing Donation Ark, there is no end to helping sentient beings.

(6) Such as a treasure mine that produces all kinds of jewels; so is bodhicitta, practicing and holding immaculate Precept Ark (see fig. 16.0.2-6; cf. 16.2), giving birth to all kinds of fortune and virtues.

16.0.2-8 精进渡 Effort Ark.jpg

(七)譬如大海,能容受一切;菩提心亦如是,修习忍辱波罗蜜多,虽遭遇违逆众缘,皆能忍受,心不动故。

(八)譬如金刚,坚不可坏;菩提心亦如是,修习精进波罗蜜多(如图16.0.2-8;参见16.4节),勇猛坚牢,他不能坏故。

(7) Such as the great sea, can accommodate all things; Bodhicitta is also like that, to study and cultivate Countenance Ark, even encountering crowds of besiegement and adversities, all can be countenanced and tolerated, because mind does not move.

(8) Such as the Philosopher’s Stone, is indestructible; Bodhicitta is also like that, to study and cultivate Effort Ark (see fig16.0.2-8), brave and adamant because others can not damage.

16.0.2-10 到达方舟 Arrival Ark.jpg

(九)譬如山王,无物能动;菩提心亦如是,修习静虑波罗蜜多,于诸境相,心不散乱故。

(十)譬如药王,能治诸病;菩提心亦如是,修习般若波罗蜜多(如图16.0.2;参见16.6节),能对治烦恼所知二种障故。

(9) Such as the mountain king, nothing can move it; Bodhicitta is also like that, to study and cultivate Meditation Ark, in all winds of changing environments, because heart is not agitated.

(10) Such as the medicine king, which can cure all diseases, the bodhicitta is also like that, studying and practicing Gnosis Ark (see fig. 16.0.2-10; cf. 16.6), can cure Know and Annoyance, the two kinds of hindrances.

16.0.2-12 四摄法 Four Assimilative Laws.jpg

(十一)譬如善友,不舍友人;菩提心亦如是,修习四无量心(即慈悲喜舍),一切时候不舍众生故。

(十二)譬如如意珠,随所欲求皆能满足;菩提心亦如是,修习四摄法(如图16.0.2-12;即布施、爱語、利行、和同事)成熟众生故。

(11) Such as benevolent friend, which never abandons friends; bodhicitta is also like that, studying and cultivating four infinite hearts (i.e., mercifulness, sorrowfulness, delightfulness, and renunciation), because of never giving up on all sentient beings.

(12) Such as As-Wish Pearl, which can fulfill all desires; bodhicitta is also like that, practicing the four assimilative laws (see fig. 16.0.2-12; i.e., donation, lovable language, benefiting behavior, and comrade) to mature all sentient beings.

(十三)譬如盛日,摄相应发心亦如是,如白熟谷,成熟众生故。

(十四)譬如美乐,能吸引听者;菩提心亦如是,与四无碍辩(参见16.9节)相应,说法教化,能摄引众生故。

(13) Such as great sun, assimilating-correspondence arousing-bodhicitta is also like that, like blazing sun ripens all crops, all capable bodhicitta matures crowds of sentient beings.

(14) Such as beautiful music that attracts listeners; bodhicitta is also like that, corresponding to the Four Non-Hindrance Interpretations (cf. section 16.9), speaking laws to teach can attracts crowds of sentient beings.

(十五)譬如国王,能制定国法;菩提心亦如是,演说现量(参见11.4.5节),能为正道不坏因故。

(十六)譬如仓库,是财物聚积处;菩提心亦如是,修习福智二种资粮,能聚积无量财法故。

(15) Such as a king who enacts the laws of the nation, bodhicitta is also like that, preaching Present Quantity (see section 11.4.5), can be the cause of all correct paths undamageable.

(16) Such as a storehouse, is a place of accumulation of wealth; so is the bodhicitta, which is capable of accumulating fortune and intelligence, the two kinds of capital and food, can aggregate and accumulate limitless juristic assets.

(十七)譬如王路,王者先行,余人随行;菩提心亦如是,修习三十七菩提分法(参见16.4节),是大圣世尊先所行道,余人随行故。

(十八)譬如车乘,二轮具足,能到处去;菩提心亦如是,止观相应,能往安乐处故。

(17) Such as the king's road, the king is pioneer, others follow; so is the bodhicitta, practicing 37 Enlightenment Branch Laws (cf. 16.4), which is the path migrated by Great Sage Social Honor first, others follow.

(18) Such as a chariot ride, with two wheels, can go anywhere; so is the bodhicitta, corresponding to Still View (i.e., Samatha Vipassana in Sanskrit), can arrive at easefully laughable place.

(十九)譬如涌泉,取水无尽;菩提心亦如是,总持门相应,闻法者虽多,说法无尽故。

(二十)譬如喜声,众生爱乐听闻;菩提心亦如是,说佛法印(无常,无我,涅槃),希求解脱的众生爱乐听闻故。

(19) Such as a springing fountain, inexhaustible water can be fetched; so is the bodhicitta, corresponding to generally hold door, even though many people come to listen the laws, the juristic speaking has no end.

(20) Such as the delightful sounds, crowds of sentient beings love to hear; so is the bodhicitta, speaking of Buddha’s Juristic Seals (i.e., impermanence, no-I, nirvana), sentient beings pursuing liberations love to hear.

16.0.2-22 墨西哥(特拉洛克)和翠玉女 Mexico (Tlaloc) and Chalchiuhtlicue.jpg

(二十一)譬如河流,其水自然;菩提心亦如是,自性相应,不起作意,无生法忍智自然流出。

(二十二)譬如大云(如图16.0.2-22),能变现多种形相,注雨润泽万物;菩提心亦如是,能示八相成道(参见17.3忍渡),化度众生故。

(21) Such as a river, the water flows naturally; so is the bodhicitta, corresponding to self-nature, no need to make attention, “Non-Birth Juristic Countenance Intelligence” (i.e., Buddha’s intelligence) flows out naturally.

(22) Such as a great auspicious cloud (see fig. 16.0.2-22) that can transform into many forms, rain to nurture all living things; the bodhicitta is also like that, revealing the “Eight Phenomena of Established Paths” (cf. 17.3 Countenance Ark), to convert and transcendingly ferry crowds of sentient beings.

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16.1 极喜地 Bliss Heartland

《成唯识论》中,唐三藏说:具证二空(2),初获圣性(3),发菩提心,能益自他,生大喜,故名极喜地(1)。

In "Treatise of Establishing Sense-Only", Tang Tripitaka said: “Having proved the two emptiness-es (2), initially attained the holy nature (3), aroused bodhicitta, can benefit oneself and others, so give rise to great joy, hence the Bliss Heartland (1).

16.1 极喜地 Bliss Heartland.jpg

16.1-1,什么是地?大乘教以此类十地总摄有为无为(参见11.6.4节《离系果》)功德以为自性,与所修行为胜依持,令得生长,故名为地。

Annotation 16.1-1, What are the ten lands? Mahayana teachings use these ten lands to generally assimilate have-as law and none-as law (see section 11.6.4 Off-is Fruit) fortune virtues as self nature, to be victorious dependence and base for study and cultivation, to have them to be born and grow, hence name lands.

16.1-2,二空是什么意思?人无我即人空,法无我则法空,合称我法二空。我谓主宰,梵语萨迦耶见,又作转移身见(参见11.4.4.1.4节)。法谓轨持(参见11.1节)。

Annotation 16.1-2, what the two emptiness? The two emptiness is human emptiness and law emptiness. Human being has no I, then human being is empty; law has no I, then law is empty. I mean ego, executive, lord, also known as Seth view, translocation body view (see section 11.4.4.1.4). Law means track, rail (see section 11.1).

16.1-3,什么是圣性?即圣人的性质,即佛性,即上帝的性质,即15.1节讲的正等明,毕竟空,是众生平等的原因。

Annotation 16.1-3, what is the holy nature? That is, the nature of a sage, God, Buddha, is reason of all sentients’ equality, is nirvana talked in section 15.1, also known as Correct Equality Light, Empty After All.

16.1.1 施渡 Donation Ark

初地菩萨修习施渡。渡,梵语波罗蜜多,欧洲人称作方舟,有六渡和十渡之说。六渡为施渡、戒渡、忍渡、精进渡(或勤渡)、禅渡、慧渡(即般若)。十渡是将慧渡展开为五:慧渡、方便渡、愿渡、力渡、智渡。这十渡是有顺序的,前者能引发后者。

The first land bodhisattva studies and practices Donation Ark. Ark, Paramita in Sanskrit, is called Ark by Europeans, Chinese calls it Ferry. There are six Arks or ten Arks in total. The six Arks are Donation Ark, Precept Ark, Countenance Ark, Diligently Advance Ark, Meditation Ark, and Gnosis Ark. The ten Arks are unfolding Gnosis Ark into five:  Gnosis Ark, Convenience Ark, Will Ark, Strength Ark, Intelligence Ark. These ten Arks are in sequence, and the former can lead to, trigger to the latter.

修习十渡从布施开始,因为无意识(神识)只与舍受相应。舍受是平等性,即圣性。施有三种:财施、无畏施、法施。无畏施是以爱语鼓励他人,勇敢地面对困难和窘境。法施是对他人宣说生命之树、四圣谛等生活的道理,人生的艺术。

The practice of Donation Ark begins with donation because the unconscious (God-sense) only corresponds to Renunciative Acceptance. Renunciative Acceptance is nature of equality, that is, holy nature. There are three types of donations: asset donation, fearlessness donation, and law donation. Fearlessness donation means encouraging others with loving words to face difficulties and adversities bravely. Law donation is to preach Tree of Life and the Four Victorious Cruxes, etc. principles and arts of life.

16.1.2 断异生性障 Severance of Mutant Nature Hindrance

初地菩萨斩断了异生性障。异生性是凡夫性的异名,依其种子烦恼和所知而建立。又烦恼和所知妨碍异生出离其本性,所以亦被称作烦恼障和所知障。

First land Bodhisattva breaks off the hindrances of mutant nature. Mutant nature is a synonym for mortal nature, is established by its seeds of annoyances and knows. Annoyances and knows hinder mortals from departing from their own natures, so the two are also called the annoyance hindrance and know hindrance.

烦恼障即是思烦恼,亦作思惑,如贪、嗔、痴、慢、疑、身见、边见、邪见、见取、戒取等。所知障即是见烦恼,亦作见惑,如身见、边见、邪见、见取、戒取、贪、嗔、痴、慢、疑等。烦恼障和所知障相互依存,成对儿存在,烦恼由所知而被认知,所知由烦恼而有感,所以此二者具有相同的名和数。烦恼障即是愚痴,能障清净,障涅槃。所知障似智非智,能障智,障觉悟,所以也被称作智障。

Annoyance hindrances are mean annoyances, also known as mean muddles, such as greed, irritation, ignorance, arrogance, suspicion, Seth view, edge view, heresy, view fetch, precept fetch, and so on. Know hindrances are view annoyances, also known as view muddles, such as Seth view, edge view, heresy, view fetch, precept fetch, greed, irritation, ignorance, arrogance, suspicion, etc. Annoyance and know hindrances are interdependent and pairs; Annoyance is recognized by know and know is felt by annoyance, so the two have the same numbers and names. Annoyance hindrances are foolishness, ignorance, which can hinder quietness and nirvana. The know hindrance is like intelligence but not intelligence, and can obstruct intelligence and enlightenment, so it is also called the intelligence hindrance.

初地菩萨体证了人空和法空,见道破除了无明黑暗。无明黑暗即根本烦恼中的痴(参见11.4.4.1.4节),即愚蠢无知,即当知未知。菩萨懂得身见、边见、和邪见后,这些所知障就被消灭了。所知障和烦恼障相互依存,当112位根本见惑(参见集谛的13.3.2节)被消灭后,烦恼障亦被消灭或削弱。由此说一地菩萨断异生性障,获得了真人或圣人的性质。

First land Bodhisattva proved human empty and law empty in person. Seeing path breaks the darkness of ignorance. The darkness of ignorance is the ignorance (aka. non-light) in fundamental annoyances (see section 11.4.4.1.4), means fool, unknowing which should be known. When a bodhisattva understands Seth views, edge views, and heresies, these Know Hindrances are eliminated. Know Hindrances and Annoyance Hindrances are interdependent, and when the 112 positions fundamental View Muddles (i.e., Know Hindrances; see section 13.3.2) are annihilated, the Annoyance Hindrances are also annihilated or weakened. Thus, it is said that the first land Bodhisattvas break off hindrances of mutant nature and gain the real human nature or holy nature.

道谛十地中的十重烦恼障就是人的十种愚痴。虽然菩萨见道,亦断诸恶趣业果等,而今且说能起烦恼的是根本烦恼,故此说初地菩萨断了如下二愚及彼粗重。(一)执着我法愚,即此中异生性障。(二)恶趣杂染愚,即如地狱趣、畜生趣、恶鬼趣等恶趣业果。

The ten folds of Annoyance Hindrances in the Path Crux are the ten types of human’s ignorance, fools, idiocies. Although after Bodhisattvas see path, they also severed those ferocious interests, now we say that what cause annoyances are the fundamental annoyances, therefore we say, the first land Bodhisattva has cut off the following two kinds of fools and their Rough and Heavy. (1) Fool of I obsession, that is the said Mutant Nature Hindrances.  (2) Fool of ferocious interests miscellaneously dyed, such as hell interest, livestock interest, and hungry ghost interest, etc. ferocious interests, and karmic fruits.

读者当知,所有的痴或无明总说为愚。见道后,愚痴被斩了头,但其根或种子犹在。无堪任性,非现行种,却仍然引起身心沉重,故名其为粗重。例如,入二禅(参见12.2节)断了苦根,所断苦根不现行,非现种而名粗重。

Readers should know that all idiocies, ignorance, non-light are generally called fool. After seeing path, idiot fool’s head is cut off, but its roots or seeds are still there. Those are not qualified to perform their duties, seeds that are not presently in performances, but those still cause the heart and body rough heavy, therefore names of Rough and Heavy. For example, entering the second meditation (see section 12.2), bitter roots are cutting off; the broken bitter roots are not presently in performance, not present seeds, hence Rough Heavy.

16.1.3 遍行真如 Omnipresent True Suchness

初地菩萨证得遍行真如。玄奘说,“遍行真如为我法二空所显,无有一法而不在”。

First land Bodhisattva testifies and gains Omnipresent True Suchness. Tang Tripitaka says, “Omnipresent True Suchness manifests when I and Law are empty. No one law does not exist”.

什么是遍行真如?佛是觉义,佛学研究现时的感知。读者可从肉体和外部世界都是心的投射来理解,所以心是一切的依托,法与非法与心同在,过去现在与未来亦复如是。既然这样,玄奘法师为什么还要说“我法二空所显”?因为世间人看到的世界是经过前意识渲染了质和量的世界,并非真如。

What is the Omnipresent True Suchness? Buddha means perception, and Buddhism studies the contemporary mind (heart). Readers can understand from the fact that the body and the external world are both projections of the heart, so the heart is the support of everything. Laws and illegalities coexist with the heart, and so are the past, present and future. Thus, why does Tang Tripitaka still say, "Omnipresent True Suchness manifests when I and Law are empty "? Because the world that mundane people see is a world in which quality and quantity are rendered by the preconscious, and it is not the true suchness.

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【11-18 佛学概论 Introduction t】
· 16 道谛 Path Crux
· 15 灭谛 Salvation Crux
· 14 集谛 Aggregate Crux
· 13 苦谛 Bitter Crux
· 12 禅 Meditation
· 11 生命之树 Tree of Life
【1-10 卢岩的回忆录】
· 10 宿命通 Fate Through
· 9 青中年 Middle Age
· 8 死不瞑目
· 7 东北大学
· 6 沈阳和平房产局
· 5 辽宁分院 Liaoning Branch
· 4 少青年 Youth
· 3 肉眼通 Flesh Eye Through
· 2 启蒙 Revelation
· 1 娃娃婚约 Children Marriage C
【太阳石文件夹】
· 18.2 风劫 Wind Catastrophe
· 18.1.6 金童
· 18.1.5 第一颗太阳
· 18.1.4 诏告天下
· 18.1.3 裸体婚礼
· 18.1.2 舍利王求婚
· 18.1.1 貌合神也合
· 18.1 虎劫 Tiger Catastrophe
【佛学文件夹】
· 16.10 法云地 Juristic Clouds H
· 16.9 善慧地 Benevolent Gnosis
· 16.8 不动地 Immovability Heart
· 16.7 远行地 Hike heartland
· 16.6 现前地 Manifestation Hear
· 16.5 难胜地 Onerous Heartland
· 16.4 焰慧地 Flaming Gnosis Hea
· 16.3 发光地 Glory Heartland
· 16.2 离垢地 Leaving Filth Hear
· 15.3.6 暇满人身 Leisure Fulfil
【回忆录文件夹】
· 5.3 威仪路 Majesty Road
· 5.1 性格测试 Personality Test
· 10.10 灵魂转世的本质 Nature of
· 10.9 三位一体 Godly Trinity
· 10.8 神的外貌 Godly Appearance
· 10.7 宿命智 Fate Intelligence
· 10.6 治疗心理疾病的原则 Princi
· 10.5 宿命通 Fate Through
· 10.4 刘团长的遗言 Troupe Leade
· 10.3 去找刘健君结婚 Went to Ma
【垃圾箱】
· 18 太阳石 The Sun Stone
· 17 金刚经释 Philosopher-Stone
· 16 道谛 Path Crux
· 15 灭谛 Salvation Crux
· 5.3 威仪路
· 14 集谛 Aggregate Crux
· 12.3 四空定 Four Empty Stillne
· 11.6.2 等流果 Equally Stream F
· 11.5 四食谛 Four Foods Crux
· 11.4.5 识蕴 Sense Node
 
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