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Ophelia 2008-01-19 05:31:42

 

 

Love ~ Tragedy --- The Pre-Raphaelites Muse

Ophelia

 

 

奧菲莉亞 (Ophelia) 是莎士比亞的哈姆雷特(Shakespeare's Hamlet)中的悲劇人物,是美好而脆弱的"東西"的象徵,其實,這名字來自拉丁文 "apheleia",意思就是"無辜"。在她愛上了哈姆雷特卻因因哈姆雷特殺害她的父親而精神失常,最後溺斃在河水中 ~~ 啟發了粉多畫家試圖闡釋這份特質,當然也包括了眾拉斐爾前派畫家們。。。。。

 

米雷 (Sir John Everett Millais 1829-1896)

1829
年出生, 十歲左右就展現繪畫天才, 十一歲獲得皇家美術學院附屬美術學校的入學許可證。 1852年著手創作這一傑作時只有二十二歲,以《奧菲利亞》一舉成名, 被莎士比亞的悲劇〈哈姆雷特〉中圍繞奧菲莉亞之死的描寫所感染。事後米雷在信中半開玩笑地寫自己差點就要跟奧菲麗亞一樣落水身亡,在英國美術史中,這幅畫是最令人難忘的作品。

米雷初期作風是基於拉斐爾前派的理念, 以忠實的自然描寫為基礎。 後期的佳作大部分為肖像畫。 米雷同拉斐爾前派畫家們的作品都有一種共同特色, 那就是對愛情與人生象詩歌般的抒情, 將枯萎或熾熱的情感再度燃燒。 拉斐爾前派推崇拉斐爾卻將拉斐爾作品中沒有的傷感抒發, 所以作品看來更像是故事畫。

http://marianatrench.blogspot.com/2007/05/blog-post_25.html

1851年米雷以嚴謹的筆法重現莎翁筆下的故事,雖不是最成功的,但應該是最具代表性的。他的《奧菲莉亞(Ophelia)》展現哈姆雷特的溺斃戀人--半個身子浸在水中的奧菲莉亞一邊唱歌一邊沉入死亡的深淵,就是辛苦臨摹一具泡在水中的真實軀體,加上周圍排列完美的真實野花所完成的。漂浮水面的細緻花朵並不僅是裝飾的自然景物,而是精挑細選、具有傳統象徵蕙義的安排:罌粟 (死亡) ;雛菊(純真);玫瑰(青春); 紫蘿蘭(貞潔與早夭);三色紫蘿蘭(空愛一場)。為了畫背景,他在薩裡州的河岸選擇了符合條件的場所,花了幾個月的時間完成了背景的繪畫。然而結果整幅畫卻顯得支離破碎,背景、少女與花朵似乎根本互不相屬.各自保有本身的真實感而與其他部份毫無關連。

 

為了創作這幅作品,米雷請後來成為羅塞特妻子的伊麗莎白·西達爾做模特,在冬天的室內進行創作。西達爾躺在裝滿水的浴盤中,雖然保溫措施很周到,但有一天用來保持水溫的燈卻突然熄滅了,西達爾這位理想的模特,儘管身體虛弱,卻一直躺在冰冷的水裡,一動不動,沒有抱怨,導致全身凍僵。原本就患有肺病的西達爾身體狀況進一步惡化,她父親一狀告上法庭,米雷不得不支付了醫療費和賠償..................

 

The source for this painting is Shakespeare's account of the death of Ophelia in Hamlet, Act IV Scene 7. Ophelia has been driven mad by the murder of her father by her lover Hamlet. Out picking flowers she slips and falls into a stream. In her grief and madness she allows herself to drown.

Millais spent nearly four months from July to October 1851 painting the background, on the bank of the River Hogsmill at Ewell in Surrey. He endured considerable difficulties and discomfort and the whole story of the painting of 'Ophelia' is evidence of the extraordinary dedication of the young Pre-Raphaelites to their goal of 'truth to nature'. In December Millais returned with the canvas to London, where he inserted the figure. The model was Elizabeth Siddal, who posed in a bath full of water kept warm by lamps underneath. The lamps once went out, she caught a severe cold and her father threatened Millais with legal action if he did not pay the doctor's bill.

The brilliant colour and luminosity of 'Ophelia' is the result of the Pre-Raphaelite technique of painting in pure colours onto a pure white ground. The ground was sometimes laid fresh for each day's work - the 'wet white' technique - which gave added brilliance and was used in 'Ophelia' particularly for the flowers. The picture contains dozens of different plants and flowers painted with the most painstaking botanical fidelity and in some cases charged with symbolic significance. For example, the willow, the nettle growing within its branches and the daisies near Ophelia's right hand, are associated with forsaken love, pain and innocence respectively. The poppy is a symbol of death. 
(原文來源 http://www.kent.ac.uk/secl/german/ophelia.html ← 此處好像掛了)

 

 

http://arts.ucsc.edu/faculty/bierman/elsinore/women/womenPortraits.html
Adolph-William Bouquereau, La Petite Ophélie (TheYoung Ophelia)

A central obstacle to affirming Ophelia's existence as an independent character is that she appears to have no past. With Hamlet, we know through exposition of his father, his childhood and his education, and we see him in relationship to old friends. However, we have none of these cues to give us a sense of Ophelia's past.

 

 

http://en.allexperts.com/e/h/ha/hamlet.htm

"The Play Scene in Hamlet" by Daniel Maclise ( 1842)
Ophelia, Hamlet, and the court watching the "mousetrap" play-within-a-play.

 

 

亞瑟•休斯 (Arthur Hughes 1832-1915) 也是一位拉斐爾前派的美術家。 有人曾這樣評價他的畫:"the knife-edge between sentiment and sentimentality" 但因為明亮的用色和細緻的細節,休斯的作品並不顯得感傷。 這是他的兩幅Ophelia  

 

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Arthur_Hughes_-_Ophelia_(First_Version).JPG
1851-53
休斯筆下的奧菲莉亞纖弱優美,宛若林澤女神畫框上有這樣的題詩:
"There's rosemary, that's for remembrance; pray,
love, remember: and there is pansies. that's for thoughts.
There's fennel for you, and columbines: there's rue
for you; and here's some for me: we may call it
herb-grace o' Sundays: O you must wear your rue with
a difference. There's a daisy: I would give you
some violets, but they withered all when my father
died: they say he made a good end,--"
From Act IV, Scene V of William Shakespeare's Hamlet,
printed on the frame of Arthur Hughes' painting Ophelia.


 

 

http://www.essentialart.com/acatalog/Arthur_Hughes_Ophelia_1865.html
Ophelia and He Will Not Come Again, 1865
Location: Toledo Museum of Art, Toldeo, Ohio, USA
休斯描述奧菲莉亞臨死前,她正接近湖面,回眸張望,唱著她的最後一首歌:
'Ophelia (sings)
And will he not come again?
And will he not come again?
No, no he is dead
Go to thy death-bed
He never will come again.
His beard was as white as snow,
All flaxen was his poll:
He is gone, he is gone,
And we cast away moan;
Gramercy on his soul!
And of all Christian souls, I pray God -
God be wi' you.

 

 

 

渥特豪斯 John William Waterhouse (1849-1917) British painter, often considered a member of the pre-Raphaelites. Waterhouse used many beautiful models to create the images of his femme fatales.

Waterhouse1849
年生於羅馬, 愛好歷史文學, 神話傳說,一生中畫過無數現實與故事中的人物, 對人物的配置, 場景的刻畫, 均有其獨特的詮釋。 但他的最愛仍然是花與女人, 兩者最吸引他的其實是青春與美麗。在1889-1910間畫了許多Ophelia,他的的 Ophelia 則多了一份浪漫與柔美..........  

 

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Ophelia_1894.jpg


'There is a willow grows aslant the brook,
That shows his hoar leaves in the glassy stream;
There with fantastic garlands did she come.
Of crow-flowers, nettles, daisies, and long purples.
There on the pendant boughs her coronet weeds
Clambering to hang an envious sliver broke.
When down the weedy trophies and herself
Fell in the weeping brook.'
- Queen Gertrude.
Hamlet. Act IV, Scene VII.

 

http://www.illusionsgallery.com/Ophelia-1889.html

 

 

1870-1917

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:John_William_Waterhouse_-_'Gather_Ye_Rosebuds,'_or,_'Ophelia'.JPG

 

 

 

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Dante_Gabriel_Rossetti_-_The_First_Madness_of_Ophelia.JPG
The First Madness of Ophelia , 1864
Dante Gabriel Rossetti
About the painting: The character of Shakespeare's tragic Ophelia, driven mad by Hamlet's rejection of her love and his killing of her father, had special resonance for Rossetti. In the early 1850s Rossetti made a number of sketches of Elizabeth Siddal as Ophelia, and in c.1856 she herself wrote a poem - A Year and A Day - in which she identified herself with the drowning Ophelia, whose destiny is ..a sadder dream.

The title suggests Ophelia's first appearance in the scene from Shakespeare's play showing her madness.

 

 

 

以下是古典風格及其他畫派眼中的 Ophelia ......

 

http://www.artrenewal.org/asp/database/museum_template.asp?artist=5
Ophelia, 1883
Alexandre Cabanel
France, Academic Classicism, b.1823 - d.1889

 

 

Ophelia (1861)
Thomas-Francis Dicksee (1819 - 95)

Artstyle: Not classified art
Location: London, Private Collection Christopher Wood Gallery


 

http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/redon/
Ophelia, 1900-1905
Redon, Odilon (1804-1916), Symbolism




Deborah Halpern's sculpture 'Ophelia' (1992) at Melbourne's Southgate complex

 

 

 

 

http://www.youtube.com/v/kff_XT2Eg2E

 

參考資料

http://en.allexperts.com/e/h/ha/hamlet.htm

http://www.answers.com/topic/ophelia-character
Ophelia's Mirror http://www.mythicalrealm.com/legends/madness.html

http://www.emory.edu/ENGLISH/classes/Shakespeare_Illustrated/Ophelia.html

http://noirkim.egloos.com/307023

 

浏览(12099) (0) 评论(2)
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作者:ebola 留言时间:2008-01-28 18:09:29
應該是謝謝別人的分享,讓我也得以分享別人 :)


To steal ideas from one person is plagiarism; to steal from many is research. ---Unknown
回复 | 0
作者:_rondo 留言时间:2008-01-22 14:12:16
从来没看到过那么完整的Ophelia人物和画像介绍。谢谢。
回复 | 0
 
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