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Are we getting more honest over time? 2020-01-18 09:25:51

Are we getting more honest over time?

The department in charge of wars used to be called war department. 
Nowadays, it is called defence department.

Discrimination in hiring and promotion used to be called discrimination. 
Nowadays it is called affirmative action. 

Factually incorrect used to be called incorrect. 
Nowadays it is called politically correct.










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Understand and overlook 2020-01-12 11:14:23

Understand and overlook

We hope to better understand
How things work 
But we often overlook
Important signs

To better understand 
We have to stand under
To shoulder the burden 
Of life

When we stand under
We will understand 
How the lowly and the silent 
Support the high and glorious 

When we stand under
We will understand 
The burden, the pain, and the sorrow 
The bond and the bondage 

When we stand under
We will understand 
How much we want to escape 
Escape to the promise of religion 

When we stand under
We will understand 
How much we resent and admire
Those who stand over us 

When we stand under
We will understand 
How much we want to turn over
Turn over to stand over

When we stand over
The shoulders of the masses
We are far sighted
We lead the masses to a bright future

When we stand over
The shoulders of the masses 
We are unburdened and free
Free to pursue our own interest 

When we stand over 
The shoulders of the masses 
We will celebrate our farsightedness 
We will celebrate our freedom 

When we stand over 
The shoulders of the masses 
We want to make sure
We never have to stand under again

When we stand over 
The shoulders of the masses 
We will shackle the mind of the masses
We will overlook their misery 

When we stand under
We shoulder the burden of life
We shoulder the bruises and pain 
We understand the essence of life

When we stand over
The shoulders of the masses 
We enjoy the farsightedness and freedom
We overlook the foundation of life

With better understanding 
The standing under will topple 
The standing over
Who overlook the standing under

The turn over between
The standing under and the standing over
Keeps the soil of life
Aerated and fertile

The turn over between
The standing under and the standing over
Keeps us understand more
And overlook less


























































































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关于李丹的语言学研究 2020-01-09 12:01:24

关于李丹的语言学研究


李丹的父亲李怀林是一个语言学家。妫的意思是象,就是他提出来的,已经得到学界的承认。其它的,大部分是李丹的陈述,我记录并整理。

很多朋友读过之后,觉得看法有点牵强。这象破密码,最初的猜测,很多是错的。但是语言内部隐藏着很多秘密和智慧,值得我们去探索。

类似的研究,还有徐江伟的历史理论。殷商之前,没有文字。大部分历史,都是猜测,很多是从古代语言读音的角度分析的,非常有意思。我看到最详细的研究,是徐江伟的博文,他的很多观点,和主流不一样。博文的链接如下

http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/articlelist_1737221574_0_1.html






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George Orwell: The Road to Wigan Pier 2020-01-08 12:59:50

Excerpts from The Road to Wigan Pier

Watching coal-miners at work, you realize momentarily what different universes people inhabit. Down there where coal is dug is a sort of world apart which one can quite easily go through life without ever hearing about. Probably majority of people would even prefer not to hear about it. Yet it is the absolutely necessary counterpart of our world above. Practically everything we do, from eating an ice to crossing the Atlantic, and from baking a loaf to writing a novel, involves the use of coal, directly or indirectly. For all the arts of peace coal is needed; if war breaks out it is needed all the more. In time of revolution the miner must go on working or the revolution must stop, for revolution as much as reaction needs coal. Whatever may be happening on the surface, the hacking and shovelling have got to continue without a pause, or at any rate without pausing for more than a few weeks at the most. In order that Hitler may march the goose-step, that the Pope may denounce Bolshevism, that the cricket crowds may assemble at Lords, that the poets may scratch one another’s backs, coal has got to be forthcoming. But on the whole we are not aware of it; we all know that we ’must have coal’, but we seldom or never remember what coal-getting involves. Here am I sitting writing in front of my comfortable coal fire. It is April but I still need a fire. Once a fortnight the coal cart drives up to the door and men in leather jerkins carry the coal indoors in stout sacks smelling of tar and shoot it clanking into the coal-hole under the stairs. It is only very rarely, when I make a definite mental-effort, that I connect this coal with that far-off labour in the mines. It is just ’coal’–something that I have got to have; black stuff that arrives mysteriously from nowhere in particular, like manna except that you have to pay for it. You could quite easily drive a car right across the north of England and never once remember that hundreds of feet below the road you are on the miners are hacking at the coal. Yet in a sense it is the miners who are driving your car forward. Their lamp-lit world down there is as necessary to the daylight world above as the root is to the flower.

It is not long since conditions in the mines were worse than they are now. There are still living a few very old women who in their youth have worked underground, with the harness round their waists, and a chain that passed between their legs, crawling on all fours and dragging tubs of coal. They used to go on doing this even when they were pregnant. And even now, if coal could not be produced without pregnant women dragging it to and fro, I fancy we should let them do it rather than deprive ourselves of coal. But most of the time, of course, we should prefer to forget that they were doing it. It is so with all types of manual work; it keeps us alive, and we are oblivious of its existence. More than anyone else, perhaps, the miner can stand as the type of the manual worker, not only because his work is so exaggeratedly awful, but also because it is so vitally necessary and yet so remote from our experience, so invisible, as it were, that we are capable of forgetting it as we forget the blood in our veins. In a way it is even humiliating to watch coal-miners working. It raises in you a momentary doubt about your own status as an ’intellectual’ and a superior person generally. For it is brought home to you, at least while you are watching, that it is only because miners sweat their guts out that superior persons can remain superior. You and I and the editor of the Times Lit. Supp., and the poets and the Archbishop of Canterbury and Comrade X, author of Marxism for Infants– all of us really owe the comparative decency of our lives to poor drudges underground, blackened to the eyes, with their throats full of coal dust, driving their shovels forward with arms and belly muscles of steel. (P 31)

The men who had fought had been lured into the army by gaudy promises, and now they were coming home to a world where there were no jobs and not even any houses. Moreover, they had been at war and were coming home with the soldier’s attitude to life, which is fundamentally, in spite of discipline, a lawless attitude. There was a turbulent feeling in the air. To that time belongs the song with the memorable refrain:
There’s nothing sure but
The rich get richer and the poor get children; In the mean time,
In between time,
Ain’t we got fun? (P 127)

Comment: I often wonder why soldiers are so successful. Here is the answer. They have a lawless attitude. They are not constrained an handicapped by laws.

Lawrence tells me that because I have been to a public school I am a eunuch. Well, what about it? I can pro- duce medical evidence to the contrary, but what good will that do? Lawrence’s condemnation remains. If you tell me I am a scoundrel I may mend my ways, but if you tell me I am a eunuch you are tempting me to hit back in any way that seems feasible. If you want to make an enemy of a man, tell him that his ills are incurable. (P 152)















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A homage to our home 2019-12-28 00:56:37

A homage to our home 


We pay homage to many people 

We pay homage to many places 

The people we should pay homage most

Are the people in our home 

The place we should pay homage most

Is our home 




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关于量子理论 2019-12-26 19:11:35

关于量子理论


量子理论总是带着神秘的面纱,其实它并不神秘。首先,我们来分析一下这个理论的名字,量子的英语是 quantum, 巨大的意思,也就是说,量子理论研究巨大的变化。


大家可能马上就会反对。量子理论研究的是微小的世界,不是巨大的变化。确实,目前的量子理论,基本上研究的是微小的世界,比如电子。一个电子,每秒钟绕原子核好多亿圈。也就是说,一眨眼的功夫,电子已经绕着原子核走了很多圈,可能已经发生了很多事情,可能已经发生了巨大的变化。所以,描述微观粒子(都动得很快)的科学叫做量子力学。就象你看到一个刚出生的婴儿,过了十年,再一次见到,孩子有了巨大的变化。


量子理论的一个根本特征就是非连续性,我们常认为这是微观世界的特性。其实不是。比如说,你不能给我0.3分钱,你至少要给我一分。你可以争辩,理论上你可以给我0.3分钱,但这个理论不是对现实的准确描述,每一种货币,都有一个最小单位,准确描述现实的理论,必然是一个量子理论。


大家可能说,量子理论是描述微观世界的理论,量子理论是建立在普郎克常数基础上的,因为普郎克常数非常小,对于宏观世界,量子理论没有什么意义。


加拿大的货币和大多数国家的货币一样,一直以来,最小的单位是一分钱。但是前几年,加拿大停止流通一分钱硬币,现在现金交易,最小的单位是五分硬币。所以,最小的单位,是可以改变的。


量子世界也是一样,我曾在一篇文章中证明,普郎克常数对应的是电子和光子。而更大的世界,相对应的常数也不一样。比如说,太阳系中的行星,其轨道离太阳的距离就是量子化的。大家可以自己算一下,水星,金星,地球,火星,到太阳的距离之比分别为 3^2, 4^2, 5^2, 6^2。跟量子理论中,各个电子到原子核的距离之比一样。不同的物理系统,对应的是不同的量子常数。


实际上,我们现实中的所有系统都是离散的,而不是连续的。我们通常每月,或每周发一次工资,而不是每分每秒发工资。公司有年度报表,内部有月报表,但没有分报表,秒报表。谁能告诉我一个公司在这一分,这一秒的准确利润?这就是测不准原理!当我们把一个变量(时间)的区间设得很小,它的对偶变量(利润)就很难测准。测不准原理是一个宏观和微观都适用的原理,而不仅仅是微观世界的专利。


我们通常认为系统是连续的,因为我们通常讨论的是平均值。比如说,一个社会的生育率是1.72,这是平均生育率,落实到具体个人,生的孩子数目一定是 0,1,2,3,4, 一定是整数,一定是离散的。


量子理论源于对微观世界周期运动的思考。但周期运动也存在于宏观世界,行星围绕着太阳转了一圈又一圈,春夏秋冬一年又一年,我们每月都有,或希望有,拿到薪水,生命一代代的传下去。


量子理论,从普郎克起,已经一百二十年了。自从海森堡,德布罗意和薛定谔建立量子力学,也差不多一百年了。之后,量子理论的基础本身很少有人争论,争论的只是对理论的解释,象爱因斯坦和玻尔之间的争论。但是,我们可以把量子理论拓展到宏观世界,应用到很多问题上。量子理论中的数学方法也可以应用到更广的领域。


进一步的讨论,可参考


Chen, J, The Unity of Science and Economics: A New Foundation of Economic Theory, 2016, Springer.

Chen, J. A generalization of quantum theory, working paper,

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/332351262_A_generalization_of_quantum_theory















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Carbon dioxide and vegetation density 2019-12-25 09:57:50

Carbon dioxide, plant density, climate and geographical change 

Carbon dioxide is the main ingredient for plants. When carbon dioxide increases, vegetations increase. Deserts turn into grasslands. Forests become lusher. The earth becomes greener. After all, carbon dioxide is a green house gas. 

Vegetations absorbs more solar energy than rocks and sands. With greater coverage of plants on the earth, plants absorb more solar energy. Surface temperature declines and air becomes more moist. This will increase rainfall, which will lower temperature further. With the increase of vegetation and the increase of rainfall, temperatures increases in most places are modest, if at all.

The temperature increase caused by the increase of carbon dioxide mainly occur in cold areas and cold season. Higher temperature shortens the time period of snow covering. Soil and vegetation reflect less solar light than snow and ice. This further increases the surface temperature. The positive feedback may cause significant temperature increase in cold areas and cold season. The increase of carbon dioxide makes winter season a little bit milder. The increase of carbon dioxide makes the bitter North a little bit gentler.

The increase of vegetation increase the absorption of water. The increase of vegetation turns more rocks and sands into soil, which absorb more water than sand and rock. With the increase of  vegetation, more water is fixed on land. This will offset, at least in part, the melting of ice in cold areas. This is why the feared predictions of huge sea level rise have to be put into further and further distant future.

The increase of carbon dioxide increases vegetation density and increases the amount of arable land. This increases the global agricultural output. Due to the increase of carbon dioxide, less plants are hungry, and less people are hungry. Carbon is the foundation of life. This is known to every organic chemist and should be known to every academics. 

Carbon dioxide is a green house gas. The increase of carbon dioxide makes the earth a greener place.  It is an irony that the Green Party campaigns so hard against a green house gas that makes the world greener. 



















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When the sun rises 2019-12-24 17:53:45

When the sun rises

When the sun rises
The whole world is bright and warm 
When the sun rises 
All stars fade into the background 

The stars will suppress the sun as long as possible 
To keep themselves from fading 
The stars will suppress the sun as long as possible 
To keep the world dark and cold 












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驾驭 2019-12-21 18:01:48

驾驭

骑马的时候,想要快一点,会说驾,想要慢一点,会说驭。合在一起,就是驾驭。

加和驾,很可能同源,加是增加速度的意思。





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慕容和 moron 2019-12-21 17:41:55

慕容和 moron

慕容是北方民族常用的一个姓,席慕容是一个蒙古族的诗人。

慕容的意思是河流。黄河的蒙古语是  Šar Mörön  

英语里,moron 是白痴

说英语的人的先祖,一定和北方民族有过纠纷



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